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1. Remediation System Evaluation (2012)   Newly Posted!
This Remedial System Evaluation (RSE) report presents findings associated with the evaluation of remediation efforts at the Palermo Wellfield Superfund Site in Tumwater, Washington. The current remedy systems at the Site include (1) two air strippers with blowers, (2) an underground clearwell, (3) a perforated polyvinyl chloride (PVC) collection pipe subdrain system installed west of the Palermo neighborhood, (4) aeration lagoons, and (5) a soil vapor extraction system installed near the tetrachloroethylene (PCE) source. The soil vapor extraction system included five vapor extraction wells and operated from March 1988 to June 2000. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) selected the Site for an RSE in order to update the conceptual site model and to address plume migration control and vapor intrusion concerns. The goals of the RSE are to address the following: (1) assess that the remediation systems are providing the level of protectiveness required, (2) lower costs associated with the remediation systems, (3) conduct technical improvements to increase effectiveness, (4) ensure that site close out is achieved as soon as possible, and (5) implement green practices. The RSE report presents findings regarding plume delineation, the effectiveness of the soil vapor extraction system before its shutdown, plume capture data, groundwater contaminant concentrations, vapor intrusion potential, the performance and effectiveness of the remediation systems currently in operation, regulatory compliance, the costs and environmental footprint associated with each remediation system, and the safety record related to remedial activities at the Site. Based on its findings, the report presents several recommendations, including (1) conducting an expanded groundwater sampling event to better delineate the current PCE and trichloroethylene (TCE) plumes, (2) conducting an updated capture zone analysis, (3) conducting crawlspace condition surveys and indoor air sampling of homes in the Palermo neighborhood to assess vapor intrusion concerns, (4) installing mitigations systems as needed in neighborhood homes with PCE and TCE concentrations above target cleanup goals, (5) assessing the practicability of lowering the water table in the southwestern portion and west of the Palermo neighborhood to eliminate groundwater discharge to the surface, (6) evaluating vapor intrusion in commercial spaces at the Southgate Shopping Center, (7) installing a water-table well in the east-northeast PCE source area to assess groundwater concentrations, (8) entering into an agreement with the City of Palermo to continue operation of the Palermo Wellfield to ensure hydraulic containment of the TCE plume, (9) reducing sampling frequency at select wells for cost savings, (10) preparing monitoring reports that include well-screen elevation intervals, PCE and TCE contour maps, cross section maps, and potentiometric surface maps, (11) reporting extraction rates and volumes for each well at the Site to the EPA monthly, (12) utilizing a data management system for site data to improve data availability and accessibility, (13) continuing to operate the active remediation systems in place at the Site, and (14) issuing a Record of Decision Amendment or Explanation of Significant Differences to update the remedial strategy and goals.
2. Remediation System Evaluation (2011)   Newly Posted!
This Streamlined Remedial System Evaluation (RSE) Report presents the findings associated with the evaluation of remediation efforts at the Intermountain Waste Oil Refinery in Bountiful, Utah. In the 2004 Record of Decision (ROD) for Operable Unit 02, a pump and treat system and dual-phase extraction system were chosen as the selected remedy. In May 2004, the systems were operational and operations continued until February 2006. After the system shutdowns, rebounds in trichloroethylene (TCE) concentrations were observed in groundwater monitoring events conducted in 2008. The goals of this RSE were to address the following: (1) assess that the remediation systems are providing the level of protectiveness as required, (2) lower costs associated with the reactivated remediation systems and existing monitoring plan, (3) conduct technical improvements, (4) ensure that site close out is achieved as soon as possible, and (5) maximize green remediation practices. The report presents evaluation findings regarding plume capture data, groundwater contaminant trends, the performance and effectiveness of the remediation systems, the costs and environmental footprint associated with each remediation system and the monitoring program, and the success of the systems in protecting human health and the environment. Based on RSE findings, the report presents several recommendations, including (1) investigating the Site source area near well MW-07 and installing three dual phase extraction points with screens at depths that have identified elevated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) concentrations, (2) operating a soil vapor extraction system (SVE) near MW-07 and extracting groundwater from the newly installed wells until TCE concentrations are reduced to 200 parts per billion by volume (ppbv), (3) considering the use of institutional controls to prevent exposure to groundwater contamination, (4) reducing the sampling frequency at wells MW-01, MW-03, MW-09, and MW-10 to reduce costs, (5) considering conducting an off-site vapor survey to identify perchloroethylene (PCE) sources off-site instead of installing six of the seven wells suggested in the 2010 Remedial Action Status Report, (6) disregarding the 2010 Remedial Action Status Report's suggestion of implementing enhanced reductive chlorination at the Site, (7) developing an exit strategy, and (8) using a smaller SVE blower than the previously installed system that was in use from 2004-2006 for energy savings.
3. Remediation System Evaluation (2011)
This report reviews the evaluation of remediation efforts at the Homestake Mining Company Superfund Site in Milan, New Mexico. Since the late 1970s, groundwater remediation and contaminant plume control has been conducted at the site using a groundwater treatment system, including: an extraction and injection system, treatment plant, and evaporation ponds. This evaluation is a supplement to the previous Remediation System Evaluation (RSE) conducted for the site. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) determined that this evaluation was necessary to address additional issues that were identified in stakeholder comments on the original RSE. The goals of the RSE addendum are to address these additional issues by reviewing the following: (1) the adequacy of the current approach in protecting, restoring, and monitoring groundwater quality, (2) the need for changes to the groundwater treatment system, and (3) the appropriateness of irrigating nearby agricultural land using contaminated groundwater. The report presents evaluation findings regarding the plume control methods, the overall remedial strategy, evaporation rates and the need for additional evaporation capacity, the groundwater monitoring network and air monitoring program, and irrigation using contaminated groundwater. Based on its findings, the report presents several recommendations, including modifications to the groundwater treatment system, additional monitoring and investigation activities, and monitoring optimization techniques. Recommendations also include the consideration of treating the contaminated irrigation water via ion exchange.
4. Remediation System Evaluation (2011)   Newly Posted!
This Remedial System Evaluation (RSE) report presents the findings associated with the evaluation of remediation efforts at the Tutu Wellfield Superfund Site in St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands. Two groundwater treatment facilities (GWTF) using groundwater extraction and air stripping were selected as the preferred alternative for groundwater treatment at the site. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) selected the site for an RSE based on a nomination by EPA Region 2. The goals of the RSE are to address the following: (1) assess that the remediation systems are providing the level of protectiveness as required, (2) lower costs associated with the remediation systems and monitoring plan, (3) conduct technical improvements to increase effectiveness, (4) ensure that site closeout is achieved as soon as possible, and (5) implement green practices. The report presents evaluation findings regarding plume capture data, groundwater contaminant concentrations, institutional controls, the performance and effectiveness of the remediation systems, the costs and environmental footprint associated with each remediation system, and the success of the systems in regards to protecting human health and the environment. Based on its findings, the report presents several recommendations, including (1) installing a new containment system, (2) installing two additional monitoring wells east of the plume, (3) conducting a sub-slab and indoor air investigation in a building identified as the Curriculum Center, which was the location of a major source of the groundwater contamination , (4) adding Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether to the sampling and analysis parameter list for the next annual event, (5) removing power costs from a fixed-fee payment to reduce markup costs from subcontractors, (6) removing levels of project management from contracting parties to achieve cost savings, (7) shutting down GWTF #2, (8) decreasing site visits and gauging activities, (9) eliminating GWTF air emission sampling, (10) removing excess pipe between the air stripper discharge and stack in GWTF #1 to increase system efficiency, (11) changing the system blower to a smaller unit (10 horsepower) to reduce costs, and (12) replacing the tray unit air stripper with a packed tower with a 2 horsepower fan for cost savings.
5. Remediation System Evaluation (2011)   Newly Posted!
This Long Term Monitoring Strategy Report presents the results of a review associated with the evaluation of site data at the Applied Materials Building 1 Superfund Site in Santa Clara, California. A 2010 five year review at the Site indicated that remedial goals for groundwater were generally achieved but the Site was experiencing intermittent exceedances of remedial goals. This report addresses how Site data was reviewed to develop a strategy for site closure. The conceptual site model (CSM) for the Site was compared to collected data in order to identify data gaps or irregularities. The following CSM areas were reviewed: (1) hydrogeology, (2) source area and mass flux downgradient, (3) the constituents of concern and their associated degradation pathways, and (4) the vertical and horizontal extent of the contaminant plume. Trend analysis using the Sequential t-Test method and the Monitoring and Remediation Optimization System (MAROS) Software was conducted in order to evaluate whether remediation efforts at the Site were successful in achieving stable or decreasing trends in groundwater contaminant concentrations. Based on the Long Term Monitoring Strategy evaluation, the report concludes that remediation efforts conducted at the Site over the course of 30 years have successfully reduced groundwater contaminant concentrations to levels near the remedial goals. The CSM and Site data review indicated that: (1) hydrogeology at the Site was consistent, (2) the source area appeared to be reduced and was not transporting mass downgradient, (3) biodegradation and abiotic chemical degradation processes were active and contaminant concentrations continued to decrease, and (4) the vertical and horizontal extent of the contaminant plume had been fully delineated. The statistical dataset evaluation indicated that contaminant concentrations in several areas had achieved remedial goals. The evaluation and report concludes that further active remediation is not required and recommends annual sampling of wells remaining in the sampling program.
6. Remediation System Evaluation (2011)   Newly Posted!
This Remedial System Evaluation (RSE) report presents the findings associated with the evaluation of remediation efforts at the Baytown Township Superfund Site in Lake Elmo, Minnesota. In the March 2007 Proposed Plan (PP), a hydraulic barrier system was selected. This hydraulic barrier was comprised of a groundwater extraction system and an air stripping treatment system. Groundwater monitoring is conducted on a quarterly basis at the site. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) selected the site for evaluation based on recommendations from the EPA Region 5 Remedial Project Manager. The goals of the RSE are to address the following: (1) minimize contaminant plume migration, (2) reduce contaminant levels in the aquifer to meet drinking water standards, and (3) decrease the amount of time groundwater from downgradient private residential wells is treated with granular activated carbon (GAC) filters. The report presents evaluation findings regarding plume capture data, groundwater contaminant trends, the performance and effectiveness of the remediation systems, the costs associated with each remediation system and the monitoring program, and the success of the systems in regards to protecting human health and the environment.

Based on RSE findings, the report presents several recommendations, including: (1) employing in-situ chemical oxidation inside the source area in a phased approach, (2) considering in-situ biological treatment, (3) conducting additional source area assessment including comprehensive stratigraphy mapping with sampling, (4) performing a soil vapor extraction (SVE) pilot study, (5) evaluating groundwater concentration rebound, and installing additional monitoring wells or piezometers if needed, (6) implementing performance based contracting for source area treatment, (7) measuring the water levels of the monitoring wells on a recurring basis when the hydraulic barrier system is shut down and also when turned on to assess the inward gradient toward the extraction wells and capture zone influence, (8) reviewing the residential well monitoring program to ensure that all wells that should be sampled are included in the sampling program and collecting geochemical parameters during the sampling, (9) performing a trend analysis of the residential wells that are near 5 µg/L for trichloroethylene, (10) performing a Monitoring and Remediation Optimization System analysis downgradient and within the source area to assess the migration of contaminants, (11) reducing costs by reducing the air stripper blower airflow rate, adjusting the granular activated carbon management program, maintaining the air stripper unit with non-explosive-proof atmospheric replacement parts, and employing passive diffusion bag samplers instead of low-flow sampling to reduce labor costs, (12) employing a more demanding monitored natural attenuation program to reduce trichloroethylene (TCE) concentrations in the source area, (13) further evaluating the issue of screen fouling in the groundwater infiltration piping, (14) performing periodic inspections of electrical components to reduce equipment failure, (15) reconfiguring the air stripper system so that the solids filtrations system is downstream from the holding tank, (16) creating a consolidated database of results to facilitate future analysis, and (17) preparing an annual report.
7. Remediation System Evaluation (2011)
This report summarizes a pilot Independent Design Reviews (IDR) conducted by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Superfund Remediation Technology Innovation (EPA OSRTI's) Technology Innovation and Field Services Division at the Celanese Fiber Operations Superfund Site in Shelby, North Carolina. A polyester and engineering plastics manufacturing facility currently operates at the site. The groundwater remedy at Operable Unit 1 of this site consisted of two pump and treat (P&T) systems: (1) an inner tier (IT) system designed to address contamination near the former source area and (2) an outer tier (OT) system designed to control plume migration near the downgradient property boundary. Operation of the IT P&T system was discontinued on a trial basis for two years to evaluate monitored natural attenuation as a potential groundwater remedy. This IDR aimed to determine if the P&T system should be restarted, modified, or if another remedial approach should be used. This report includes, in addition to site background and a summary of observations from site document review, recommendations for (1) future modifications to the existing remediation system, and (2) additional site characterization, as well as evaluating the cost impacts to implement these recommendations. Suggested remedial strategies are discussed in the context of each of the three primary contaminants: diethylene oxide, trichloroethene, and ethylene glycol.
8. Remediation System Evaluation (2011)   Newly Posted!
This Remedial System Evaluation (RSE) report presents findings associated with the evaluation of remediation efforts at the General Motors Former AC Rochester Facility in Sioux City, Iowa. The current remedy systems at the Site include (1) a hydraulic control system on the downgradient portion of the Site and (2) the use of City Well #3, a former municipal drinking water well as a recovery well that discharges to the Missouri River. City Well #3 was taken off-line as a municipal drinking water well and converted into a recovery well in 2001. The hydraulic control system which is comprised of 11 recovery wells began operations in 2006. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) selected the Site for evaluation to provide an independent third-party review of current remedy systems in place and to develop a strategy for future remediation efforts. The goals of the RSE are to address the following: (1) assess that the remediation systems are providing the level of protectiveness required, (2) lower costs associated with the remediation systems and monitoring plan, (3) conduct technical improvements to increase effectiveness, (4) ensure that site close out is achieved as soon as possible, and (5) implement green practices. The report presents evaluation findings regarding plume capture data, groundwater contaminant concentrations, the performance and effectiveness of the remediation systems, regulatory compliance, the costs and environmental footprint associated with each remediation system, and the safety record related to remedial activities at the Site. Based on its findings, the report presents several recommendations, including (1) conducting a vapor intrusion investigation in the Facility Building and in a paved area downgradient of the current hydraulic control system, (2) adding 1,4-Dioxane to the sampling parameter list, (3) installing additional containment sentinel wells to better delineate contaminant migration paths off-site, (4) assessing the condition of City Well #3, which was damaged after a flood, (5) preparing an annual report, (6) developing an exit strategy involving shutdown criteria for active source areas and containment remedies, (7) identifying source area soil and groundwater remedy options, (8) identifying containment area remedy options, and (8) depending on preliminary findings, installing and operating an air sparging/soil vapor extraction system for soil and groundwater source areas, installing an air-stripper system for the hydraulic control system, and continuing the operation of the hydraulic control system.
9. Remediation System Evaluation (2011)   Newly Posted!
This Remedial System Evaluation (RSE) report presents findings associated with the evaluation of remediation efforts at the Lee Chemical Superfund Site in Liberty, Missouri. The current remedy systems at the Site include (1) an in-situ aqueous soil washing system that utilizes potable water to infiltrate contaminated soil and transports the contamination to groundwater at the site, and (2) two extraction wells that extract and discharge the groundwater to the Town Branch Creek where aeration and mixing occurs as the water is discharged over riprap. The in-situ aqueous soil washing system which is comprised of four infiltration galleries has been in operation since March 1994. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) selected the Site for evaluation after a recommendation from EPA Region 7. The third Five-Year Review in 2009 identified concerns regarding plume capture and remedy effectiveness. The goals of the RSE are to address the following: (1) assess that the remediation system is providing the level of protectiveness required, (2) lower costs associated with the remediation system, (3) conduct technical improvements to increase effectiveness, (4) ensure that site close out is achieved as soon as possible, and (5) implement green practices. The report presents evaluation findings regarding plume delineation, groundwater contaminant concentrations, the performance and effectiveness of the remediation system currently in operation, regulatory compliance, the costs and environmental footprint associated with each component of the remediation system, and the safety record related to remedial activities at the Site. Based on its findings, the report presents several recommendations, including (1) confirming groundwater flow directions by surveying wells, measuring water levels, and preparing potentiometric surface maps, (2) including additional passive diffusion bag sampling depth intervals to identify levels of contamination, (3) conducting low flow groundwater sampling for 1, 4-dioxane, (4) analyzing groundwater samples for monitored natural attenuation parameters, (5) identifying if additional monitoring points are needed to further delineate the plume, (6) submitting a field blank for each passive diffusion bag sampling event to rule out suspected laboratory contaminants, (7) postponing soil gas sampling, (8) considering a change in the remedy based on the outcome of utilizing the RSE recommendations, and (9) evaluating the soil vapor intrusion potential for possible future structures at the Site.
10. Remediation System Evaluation (2011)   Newly Posted!
This Remedial System Evaluation (RSE) report presents findings associated with the evaluation of remediation efforts at the Moss-American Superfund Site in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. In the 1997 Explanation of Significant Differences (ESD), a funnel and gate system was selected as the preferred alternative for groundwater treatment at the site. As part of the groundwater remedy, a monitoring program for the funnel and gate system is conducted to evaluate groundwater hydraulics and groundwater chemical analyses. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) determined that this evaluation was necessary to address elevated contaminant of concern (COC) levels that had resulted from a stagnant groundwater zone within the funnel and gate system. The goals of the RSE are to address the limited groundwater flow and the resulting elevated COC levels by achieving the following: (1) confirming that there is a clear conclusion to the project, (2) lowering costs and optimizing the remedy by taking into account current technology and site conditions, (3) confirming that government-owned equipment is properly maintained, and (4) assessing that the remediation system is providing the level of protectiveness required under the National Contingency Plan. The report presents evaluation findings regarding optimizing the system performance of the funnel and gate system. Based on its findings, the report presents several recommendations, including (1) modifying the groundwater monitoring program and (2) conducting additional site characterization investigations. Two options for modifying the treatment system are identified, contingent on additional site characterization investigations. These system modification options are: (1) removing nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL)-impacted soil in conjunction with enhanced dissolved-phase treatment or (2) installing an additional gate to improve groundwater flow.
11. Remediation System Evaluation (2011)   Newly Posted!
This Remedial System Evaluation (RSE) report presents the findings associated with the evaluation of remediation efforts at the Pemaco Superfund Site in Maywood, California. In the 2005 Record of Decision (ROD), hot spot removal, soil capping, a dual-phase extraction system, a soil vapor extraction system, a groundwater extraction system, and electrical resistance heating were chosen as the selected remedy. In May 2007, the soil and groundwater systems were operational. This RSE concentrates on the soil vapor extraction system, dual-phase extraction system, groundwater extraction system, and associated monitoring. The goals of the RSE are to address the following: (1) assess that the remediation systems are providing the level of protectiveness as required, (2) lower costs associated with the remediation systems and monitoring plan, (3) conduct technical improvements to increase effectiveness, (4) ensure that site close out is achieved as soon as possible, and (5) maximize sustainability. The report presents evaluation findings regarding plume capture data, groundwater contaminant trends, the performance and effectiveness of the remediation systems, the costs and environmental footprint associated with each remediation system and the monitoring program, and the success of the systems in regards to protecting human health and the environment.

Based on RSE findings, the report presents several recommendations, including (1) conducting continued monitoring at wells MW-25-110 and MW-11-100 and installing additional monitoring or pumping wells to define the plume, (2) conducting soil gas sampling at properties along 60th Street for volatile organic compounds, (3) reducing the number and frequency of annual groundwater monitoring well sampling from 374 samples to 192 samples, (4) reducing the groundwater process sampling, (5) reducing the number of vapor extraction points and implementing a rebound testing program, (6) reducing labor costs by implementing reduced sampling and conducting system changes, (7) reducing project management and subcontracting costs by reducing sampling, (8) improving data management so that data is presented in an easy to use format where trends can be identified, (9) preparing two semi-annual reports, and (10) documenting soil-vapor action levels to facilitate remedy close out.
12. Remediation System Evaluation (2011)   Newly Posted!
This Remedial System Evaluation (RSE) report presents the findings associated with the evaluation of remediation efforts at the Vineland Chemical Company Superfund Site in Vineland, New Jersey. A groundwater extraction and treatment system utilizing oxidation, flocculation, and separation processes is in operation at the site. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) selected the site for evaluation based on a recommendation from the EPA Remedial Project Manager for the site and from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Philadelphia District. The goals of the RSE are to address the following: (1) assess that the remediation systems are providing the level of protectiveness as required, (2) lower costs associated with the remediation systems and monitoring plan, (3) conduct technical improvements to increase effectiveness, (4) ensure that site closeout is achieved as soon as possible, and (5) increase environmental sustainability. The report presents evaluation findings regarding plume capture data, groundwater contaminant trends, and the performance and effectiveness of the monitoring program and treatment system, the costs and environmental footprint associated with the remedy and monitoring program, and the success of the systems in regards to protecting human health and the environment. Based on its findings, the report presents several recommendations, including (1) further characterizing the northern and western portion of the contaminant plume, (2) modifying the groundwater extraction system to improve plume capture, (3) installing two to three additional monitoring wells between the extraction wells and the Blackwater Branch Area, (4) discontinuing use of a treatment plant effluent autosampler due to unreliability, (5) eliminate routine on-site arsenic sampling for cost savings, (6) reducing the pumping extraction rate, (7) evaluating the existing groundwater monitoring plan to identify cost inefficiencies, (8) reducing the number of monitoring wells sampled for cost savings, (9) reducing heating and lighting costs by removing portions of the process area that are no longer in use, (10) evaluating the chemical usage to identify cost savings, (11) considering the use of a plate and frame filter press to dewater solids instead of a centrifuge, (12) substituting lime in place of sodium hydroxide in pH adjustment for cost savings, (13) optimizing staffing needs, (14) considering the cost savings associated with delisting sludge waste as a hazardous waste, (15) refining how well rehabilitation is conducted, (16) discontinuing the use of curtains and electrical resistive heaters for the sand filters in favor of more efficient sources of heating, (16) preparing an annual report to document remedy performance, (17) continuing with the current plan to remove unneeded soil washing equipment, (18) evaluating the viability of natural attenuation versus the pump and treat remedy, (19) evaluating the use of enhanced in-situ treatment for arsenic immobilization to reduce the amount of groundwater extraction, (20) considering combining heat and power by generating site electricity from natural gas for cost savings, (21) conducting a bench and pilot test to evaluate the use of iron hydroxide sludge from another site in place of sodium hydroxide and ferric chloride to reduce the site’s environmental footprint, and (22) postponing lighting retrofitting at the site until potential changes to the remedy are made.
13. Remediation System Evaluation (2011)   Newly Posted!
This Remedial System Evaluation (RSE) report presents the findings associated with the evaluation of remediation efforts at the Wash King Laundry Superfund Site in Pleasant Plains Township, Michigan. In the 1993 Record of Decision (ROD) and the 1996 Explanation of Significant Differences (ESD), a pump and treat system and soil vapor extraction (SVE) system were selected as the preferred alternative for groundwater and sub-slab vapor treatment at the site. Both of these remediation systems became operational in 2001. In 2010, in-situ bioremediation of soil and groundwater located in close proximity to the former site building also was implemented. Site-wide process monitoring, groundwater monitoring, and bioremediation performance monitoring is conducted at the site. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) selected the site for evaluation based on recommendations from the State of Michigan and EPA Region 5 due to a slated site status change from long-term remedial action to operations and maintenance. The goals of the RSE are to address the following: (1) assess that the remediation systems are providing the level of protectiveness as required, (2) lower costs associated with the remediation systems and monitoring plan, (3) conduct technical improvements to increase effectiveness, (4) ensure that site close out is achieved as soon as possible, and (5) implement green practices. The report presents evaluation findings regarding plume capture data, groundwater contaminant trends, the performance and effectiveness of the remediation systems, the costs and environmental footprint associated with each remediation system and monitoring program, and the success of the systems in regards to protecting human health and the environment. Based on its findings, the report presents several recommendations, including (1) additional groundwater sampling of on-site wells and off-site residential wells for lead, (2) evaluating the use of institutional controls to restrict groundwater use, (3) rehabilitating extraction well EW-5 and monitoring its specific capacity to improve pumping conditions, (4) indoor air sampling of buildings less than 100-feet from the volatile organic compound (VOC) source area, (5) discontinuing pumping from EW-4 to reduce costs, (6) eliminating metals analyses of compounds not of concern at the site, (7) reducing the groundwater monitoring program sampling locations and frequency based on site status (will also support cost savings), (8) conducting additional direct-push investigations to further characterize the contamination sources, (9) developing an exit strategy, and (1) using greener practices at the site (such as, using dedicated tubing in monitoring wells sampled).
14. Remediation System Evaluation (2011)   Newly Posted!
This Remedial System Evaluation (RSE) report presents the findings associated with the evaluation of remediation efforts at the Eastern Surplus Superfund Site in Meddybemps, Maine. Based on the 2000 Record of Decision (ROD), two pump and treat systems were installed to deal with southern and northern groundwater plumes. Source area contamination was addressed with in-situ chemical oxidation. The pump and treat system for the northern plume is still in operation. The southern plume system has been shut down after successfully reducing volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations. This RSE concentrates on the northern plume pump and treat system and associated monitoring. The goals of the RSE are to address the following: (1) assess that the remediation systems are providing the required level of protectiveness, (2) lower costs associated with the remediation system and monitoring plan, (3) identify potential technical improvements to increase effectiveness, (4) help ensure that site close out is achieved as soon as possible, and (5) identify options to maximize sustainability. The report presents evaluation findings regarding plume capture data, groundwater contaminant trends, the performance and effectiveness of the remediation system, the costs and environmental footprint associated with the remediation system and monitoring program, and the success of the system in regards to protecting human health and the environment.

Based on its findings, the report presents several recommendations, including (1) lower the pneumatic submersible pumps in four of the northernmost extraction wells to improve plume capture, (2) evaluate plume capture by preparing more accurate potentiometric surface maps, monitoring the vertical gradient, and monitoring contaminant concentrations in key wells, (3) eliminate metals analyses of process water, (4) eliminate two influent samples in the process sampling monitoring program, (5) reduce site visits from three times a week to once a week, (6) switch from low-flow sampling to passive diffusion bag sampling, (7) remove annual sediment, biota, and surface water sampling from the monitoring plan, (8) sample extraction wells yearly to monitor PCE concentrations, (9) discontinue metals ion exchange treatment, (10) discontinue the use of the southern extraction wells, (11) use passive diffusion bag samplers in certain monitoring and extraction wells to determine tetrachloroethylene (PCE) concentrations and vertical distribution in bedrock , and (12) create an exit strategy that involves comparing VOC concentrations of treated groundwater discharge to the Denny's River to the Federal surface water quality criteria.
15. Remediation System Evaluation (2010)
This report documents the evaluation and associated recommendations for optimizing the effectiveness of a groundwater pump and treatment system at the Millcreek Dump Superfund Site located in Erie, Pennsylvania. Recommendations associated with the treatment system included: (1) further characterize the extent of contamination, (2) install additional points for water level measurements, (3) conduct a shutdown and restart test of the extraction system, (4) document the findings from recommendations 1 to 3 and use these finding for a capture zone analysis, (5) automate chemical feeds, and (6) if off-site shallow contamination is identified and determined to be related to the site, conduct a vapor intrusion evaluation. Cost saving recommendations included canceling the April sampling event, discontinuing analysis for dissolved metals, streamlining process sampling, and revisiting data validation and reporting costs. Recommendations for improved life-cycle environmental sustainability for the overall site and for the treatment plant included a revised approach to metal removal and considerations for integrating renewable energy at the site.
16. Remediation System Evaluation (2010)
This report documents an evaluation and associated recommendations for optimizing treatment systems currently in place at the 10th Street Superfund Site located in Columbus, Nebraska. The remedies consist of three parts: a groundwater extraction and treatment system, an air sparge/soil vapor extraction system, and an In Situ Chemical Oxidation treatment system. Recommendations associated with improving the effectiveness of the treatment systems included: (1) evaluate the need for further evaluation of the potential for vapor intrusion, (2) discontinue pumping from one well and shift pumping to another well, (3) address calibration issues (which is an important tool for capturing zone evaluation and evaluating future decisions regarding pumping locations/rates) and (4) address potential plume migration. Cost saving recommendations included discontinuing the In Situ Chemical Oxidation treatment, continuing to use passive diffusion bags as the primary sampling method and reducing the frequency and redundancy in monitoring and reporting. Technical improvement recommendations included measuring and tracking the specific capacity of wells and considering variable frequency drives for extraction well pumps. Recommendations regarding improved sustainability opportunities for the remedy and consideration for gaining site closeout are also included in this report.
17. Remediation System Evaluation (2010)
This report documents the evaluation and associated recommendations for optimizing the effectiveness of previously conducted shallow zone remediation, identifying implications for potential additional shallow zone remediation, and evaluating the effectiveness and efficiency of the intermediate zone (IZ) groundwater pump and treat (P&T) system at the Alaric, Inc. Superfund Site located in Tampa, Florida. Recommendations to improve effectiveness included: (1) determine a conservative buffer when assessing the plume extent related to establishing groundwater restrictions, (2) analyze process water for constituents of concern, (3) simplify the P&T system controls, (4) monitor the specific capacity in the recovery wells to forecast potential problems with well fouling, and (5) interpret capture zone of the P&T system. Cost recommendations included modifying volatile organic compound treatment, considering the discharge of treated groundwater to the shallow zone, characterizing granular activated carbon used for the P&T system to investigate the source of radioactivity, and tracking routine operations and maintenance costs separately from non-routine costs to help identify major costs increases. Recommendations for treatment system technical improvements and movement towards site close out are also included in this report.
18. Adaptive Long-Term Monitoring at Environmental Restoration Sites (2009)
This report, prepared by the Environmental Security Technology Certification Program of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), demonstrates and validates the use of the "Sampling Optimizer and Data Tracker" software (also referred to as "Summit Software") for long-term monitoring. This software includes two modules: (1) the Sampling Optimizer (SO) identifies redundancies in sampling locations in historical data, and (2) the Data Tracker (DT) identifies cases where current data deviates from expectations (through comparison of recent monitored data against historical data). The primary objective of this report is to document application of the software at three different DoD sites, including: (1) Former George Air Force Base Site (GAFB), (2) Former Nebraska Ordnance Plant Site (NOP), and (3) Camp Allen Landfill Site (Camp Allen). The three sites vary in geographic location, contaminants of concern, sampling frequency, and well monitoring networks. The review teams obtained preliminary information through site review, developed preliminary optimization formulations, and obtained the most current historical data for each site. The performance objectives included; user functionality, software reliability, model builder performance, SO performance, DT performance, regulatory acceptance, and comparison with MAROS. The SO and DT were applied to all three sites and all performance objectives were met. Demonstration design, performance assessment, cost assessment and implementation issues are presented in this report.
19. Groundwater Monitoring Program Evaluation (2009)
This report reviews and provides recommendations for improving a groundwater monitoring network for the Delatte Metals Superfund Site, a former battery manufacturing facility. The primary goal of the groundwater long-term monitoring optimization (LTMO) evaluation was to improve the efficiency and accuracy of the monitoring network. This evaluation also served to assess the attainment of remedial action objectives. Several remedial actions have been completed at the site, including: removal of contaminated soil, decommissioning of buildings and tanks, installation of a bio-barrier to treat contaminated groundwater, and implementation of institutional controls. The site was deleted from the National Priorities List in August 2005. Analytical data collected at the site from January 2004 to August 2008 were evaluated using a formal qualitative approach as well as statistical tools found in the Monitoring and Remediation Optimization System (MAROS) software. The report describes the groundwater monitoring evaluations conducted at the site, findings, and recommendations. The report provides recommendations on specific sampling locations, sampling frequencies, analytes, and data management strategies to support the development of a long-term site management plan. The report notes that current data are insufficient to determine whether the remedy has been successful and additional data should be collected to evaluate the status of site groundwater and potential exposure pathways.
20. Long-Term Monitoring Program Evaluation (2009)
This report summarizes the findings and recommendations from a long-term groundwater monitoring program evaluation conducted at the Somersworth Sanitary Landfill Site in Somersworth, New Hampshire. Groundwater remedies began operating at the site in 2001 and included a zero-valent iron (ZVI) permeable reactive barrier installed at the downgradient edge of the waste management area of the landfill. and a permeable landfill cover (PLC) over the waste management area. The site is currently in the long-term monitoring phase of operation and maintenance (O&M). In 2007, site monitoring data was evaluated using the Monitoring and Remediation Optimization System (MAROS) software. This report includes a review of the data inputs, assumptions, and subsequent MAROS analysis to evaluate the previously identified recommendations for the Somersworth site monitoring network. The data was assessed for sufficiency, quality, and consistency with site conditions. Based on a review of the data inputs, MAROS results and interpretation, it was determined that the recommendations for the Somersworth Site were appropriate and consistent with the groundwater monitoring objectives. The report describes additional recommendations to streamline future data analyses and prevent minor complications that may arise after making the proposed changes to the monitoring network.
21. Long-Term Monitoring Program Evaluation (2009)
This report documents the evaluation and associated recommendations for a long-term groundwater monitoring network evaluation at the Gilson Road Superfund Site in New Hampshire. After successful implementation of remedial actions at the site over the past 30 years, the site is currently in the long-term operation and maintenance (O&M) phase. The current groundwater monitoring network at the site was evaluated using a formal qualitative approach as well as statistical tools found in the Monitoring and Remediation Optimization System (MAROS) software. Analytical data collected from 1999 and 2009 were assessed during this evaluation to develop an optimized groundwater monitoring strategy that would fully support site management decisions and minimize expense and effort associated with long-term O&M. The report describes the findings of this evaluation along with the recommendations for groundwater sampling frequency and location and long-term monitoring goals for the site. Recommendations described in the report include (1) establishment of a routine, consistent monitoring program, (2) optimization of the groundwater monitoring network for arsenic and to a lesser extent, lead contamination, (3) addition of one bedrock monitoring well, (3) monitoring of the groundwater management zone, (4) sampling for the majority of monitoring wells, (4) monitoring chlorobenzene concentrations, and (5) conducting surface water and sediment monitoring.
22. Long-Term Monitoring Program Evaluation (2009)
This report reviews and provides recommendations for improving a groundwater monitoring network for the Kearsarge Metallurgical Corporation Superfund Site in New Hampshire. A groundwater extraction and treatment system operated at the site between 1993 and 2005. Since 2005, the groundwater plume is being monitored and monitored natural attenuation is being evaluated as a long-term remedy at the site. This report presents the results of groundwater monitoring network evaluation using a formal qualitative approach as well as statistical tools found in the Monitoring and Remediation Optimization System (MAROS) software. The evaluation of the monitoring system included data collected prior to, during, and after cessation of the groundwater extraction remedy. Recommendations provided in the report for groundwater sampling frequency and locations are based on qualitative factors as well as statistical results. Recommendations described in the report include (1) eliminating wells from the monitoring program, (2) reducing sampling frequency, (3) implementing surface water monitoring, and (4) continued source and compliance monitoring.
23. Remediation System Evaluation (2009)
This memorandum provides a condensed and updated summary of the conceptual site model (CSM) for groundwater contamination in the vicinity of the Kearsarge Metallurgical Corporation Superfund Site in New Hampshire. The purpose of this memorandum was to provide a basis for performing long-term optimization at the site. A groundwater pump and treat system operated at the site between 1993 and 2005. These remedial activities complicated groundwater flow patterns and concentration trends at the site, requiring updates to the CSM. Updates to the site CSM were based on post-source removal data, information provided in the Five-Year Review, and interpretation of data collected subsequent to those documents. This memorandum details the updates to specific components of the CSM, including the following: relationship of stratigraphy to groundwater flow directions and contaminant transport, changes in water level patterns over time, contaminant concentration trends, and plume stability with respect to statistical analysis. This memorandum also includes figures, including: the site plan, water level maps, and plume maps based on information collected through November 2007.
24. Perchlorate Removal, Destruction and Field Monitoring Demonstration (2008)

25. A Cost Comparison Framework for Use in Optimizing Ground Water Pump and Treat Systems (2007)
This document developed by EPA Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation (OSRTI) discusses a framework for comparing costs of remedial alternatives or modifications in conjunction with the optimization of long-term ground water remedies, including pump and treat (P&T) systems. This document provides cost comparisons associated with long term ground water remedies and applicability of cost comparisons as part of the optimization process; illustrative examples of applying cost comparisons for various scenarios and discusses factors that affect economic decision making, such as discounting future costs to net present value, the appropriateness of pilot studies, and accounting for uncertainty.
26. Final Report: Pilot Region-Based Optimization Program for Fund-Lead Sites EPA Region III (2007)
This report presents the results of the pilot program conducted by EPA Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation (OSRTI) of a Region-based optimization program of the Region III Fund-lead sites with P&T systems. The pilot program consists of conducting streamlined optimization evaluations, implementing a formal follow-up/tracking program, documenting the project results, and providing technical assistance based on requests of the Remedial Project Managers and findings during follow-up. Each of these components is implemented by a Regional Optimization Evaluation Team (ROET) that is comprised of Regional management, Regional technical staff, technical experts unassociated with the sites, and a representative from OSRTI.
27. Long-Term Groundwater Monitoring Optimization for Clare Water Supply Superfund Site, Permeable Reactive Barrier and Soil Remedy, Clare, Michigan (2007)
This document provides a review of the long-term groundwater monitoring program for two areas of the Clare Water Supply Superfund Site in Clare, Michigan. One of the area has a permeable reactive barrier system installed and the other soil remedy area consisted of placing the contaminated soil on existing land surface beneath an engineered cap. A slurry wall was installed around the cap, and a dual-phase extraction (DPE) system was installed to treat vapor and groundwater removed from the contained area. A review of each area was conducted using a formal qualitative approach and statistical tools available with the Monitoring and Remediation Optimization System software (MAROS).
28. Long-Term Groundwater Monitoring Optimization, Newark, Muscoy, and Source Operable Unites, Newmark Superfund Site, San Bernardino, California (2007)
This report documents the review and recommendations provided for optimizing the groundwater monitoring program at the Newmark Superfund Site. The groundwater monitoring network was evaluated using a formal qualitative approach in addition to using statistical tools found in the Monitoring and Remediation Optimization System (MAROS) software. Recommendations to optimize the long-term groundwater monitoring included continuing with long-term groundwater monitoring; using wells with non-detect results and contaminant concentrations below the cleanup goals as delineation locations and as ‘sentinel’ wells to detect any increase in contaminant concentrations; reducing monitoring frequency at several wells; continuing to evaluate concentration trends for monitoring locations; continuing to refine the conceptual site model through modeling and statistical analysis; and reviewing the monitoring program again within three to five years.
29. Long-Term Groundwater Monitoring Optimization, Taylor Road Landfill Superfund Site, Seffner, Hillsborough County, Florida (2007)
This report documents the review and recommendations provided for optimizing the groundwater monitoring program at the Taylor Road Landfill Superfund Site. The groundwater monitoring network was evaluated using a formal qualitative approach in addition to using statistical tools found in the Monitoring and Remediation Optimization System (MAROS) software. Cost reduction recommendations included continuing with long-term groundwater monitoring at all wells, decreasing monitoring frequency at several wells, and reducing the number of analytes measured during each monitoring event.
30. Optimization Strategies for Long-Term Ground Water Remedies (with Particular Emphasis on Pump and Treat Systems) (2007)
This report prepared by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is a resource for managers, contractors or regulators for optimizing long-term groundwater remediation strategies, particularly those using Pump and Treat (P&T) systems. It discusses the benefits of optimization, components of a typical optimization evaluation, and components of an optimization program that utilizes such evaluations. Optimization refers to efforts used to improve a remedy’s effectiveness in protecting human health and the environment, reducing life-cycle remedy costs, and speeding progress toward site closure. Specific optimization evaluation processes that have been implemented by various Federal agencies are highlighted. The optimization processes discussed are based on independent evaluations that are conducted by a team of experts.
31. Remedial System Evaluation — Ace Services Superfund Site, Colby, Kansas (2007)
This document provides recommendations for optimizing the effectiveness of a pump and treat system by using revised potentiometric maps and multiple lines of evidence to evaluate capture and pumping for six months at wells that displayed a rebound of contaminant concentrations upon cessation of pumping. Cost reduction recommendations include modifying extraction rates, revising the groundwater monitoring program to reduce the number of wells sampled, and reducing project management costs. Technical improvement and site closure recommendations include reusing equipment and simplifying operations, preparing a map to illustrate the results of previously conducted soil investigations and excavations to understand the future potential of leaching of soil contamination into groundwater, and a two-step approach to evaluating the potential for a continued source of contamination.
32. Remedial System Evaluation — Central City/Clear Creek Superfund Site, Argo Tunnel Water Treatment Plant, Idaho Springs, Colorado (2007)
This document provides recommendations for the optimizing the treatment of mining discharge from a Superfund site at a waste water treatment plant by considering measures to prevent future blowouts at the water treatment plant, evaluating ways to control the discharge of acidic and metals-rich groundwater during high flow events, and monitoring the air in the treatment plant to ensure the safety of treatment plant operators. Cost reduction recommendations include reducing labor costs by installing a new platform and two new filter presses to facilitate handling of solids, improving plant operations and addressing issues associated with the lime feed system. Technical improvement recommendations include reducing discharge of recycled solids and high pH water to equalization basins, improving the lime feed system by creating a recycling loop and implementing changes in the metering pump design, and providing additional compressed air capacity.
33. Remedial System Evaluation — Northwest Pipe and Casing Site, Clackamas, Oregon (2007)
This document provides recommendations for optimizing an in-situ air stripping wells (groundwater circulation wells, or GCWs) treatment system at the Northwest Pipe and Casing Site. Recommendations included improving delineation of the plume, finalizing institutional controls, and evaluating potential for vapor intrusion. Cost reduction recommendations include elimination of the GCWs. Technical improvement and site closeout recommendations include improving revising sequencing for collecting site-wide water level data, clarifying and documenting goals for active remediation, and implementing in situ bioremediation in conjunction with natural remediation to reduce the highest concentrations of volatile organic compounds.
34. Review Report: Feasibility Study Strategies and Remedial System Performance Improvement for the 200-ZP-1/PW-1 Operable Units at Hanford (2007)
This report documents the review and recommendations provided for optimizing the pump and treat (P&T) and soil vapor extraction (SVE) systems at operable units 200-ZP-1 and PW-1 at the Department of Energy Hanford Site in Washington. Recommendations to improve the efficiency of the P&T system included addition of new deep extraction wells, evaluation of the vertical extent of the contaminant plume, retrofit extraction wells with speed controls, discontinue the use of real time analyzer for monitoring GAC units, and evaluate staffing needs at the treatment plant. Recommendations for the SVE system included continuing periodic operation of the system and using the SVE system at certain areas of the plume, discontinuing the use of real time analyzer for monitoring GAC units, and reconsidering the use of in situ thermal treatment to treat soil contamination. Other recommendations included revisions to the conceptual site model, feasibility study strategy, and types of modeling tools.
35. Review Report: Groundwater Remedial System Performance optimization at PGDP, Paducah, Kentucky (2007)
This report documents the review and recommendations provided for two groundwater pump and treat (P&T) systems at PGDP in Kentucky. At the Northeast P&T system, recommendations included placing the P&T system in stand-by mode with continued monitoring to assess the potential contaminant rebound and conducting groundwater transport modeling by installing new monitoring wells and increasing groundwater monitoring frequency. While the capital costs may increase, costs associated with labor for site visits, maintaining the equipment, process monitoring, electricity usage, and equipment replacement will be reduced. The RSE team also recommended investigating a new possible contamination source. At the Northwest P&T system, the RSE team recommended terminating the extraction at the two northern extraction wells, and increasing total extraction in the vicinity of the southern extraction wells by a similar amount (about 80 gpm). This design modification would increase contaminant mass removal and enhance capture near the southern extraction wells, which are closer to the contaminant sources. Additional recommendations included consideration of low-cost alternatives for reducing concentrations in groundwater, either in-situ or prior to discharge of the water.
36. Streamlined Remedial System Evaluation (RSE-Lite) — Benfield Industries Superfund Site, Waynesville, North Carolina (2007)
This document provides an evaluation of a shutdown pump and treat system at a Superfund site. The evaluation concluded that the pump and treat system should remain off because only one well was above the cleanup criteria, there was minimum threat to receptors, and because the existing system was not very effective for hydraulic containment or aquifer restoration. Cost reduction recommendations include not restarting the Pump and treat system and considering Monitored Natural Attenuation as an alternative remedy. Technical improvement and site closure recommendations include documenting potential downgradient receptor locations and adjusting monitoring locations; sampling for dioxins/furans in soil; documenting the rationale for eliminating metals analysis; improving sampling and analysis methods and reports; assess feasibility and cost/benefit of in situ treatment for remaining soil hot spot; and reassessing the cleanup criterion for 1,4-dichlorobenzene.
37. Data Management, Analysis, and Visualization Techniques (2006)
This document is the fourth in a series of documents on advanced Remedial Process Optimization topics. It provides an overview of the basic concepts of Data Management, Analysis, and Visualization Techniques. It provides a summary of useful techniques to help manage existing data and gather data in the field. The report also provides techniques to extract useful information from existing data and collect new data for analysis. It also shows how the results of the analysis can be used to make decisions through the use of the appropriate data visualization and presentation technique.
38. Life Cycle Cost Analysis (2006)
This document is the first in a series of documents on advanced Remedial Process Optimization topics. It provides an introduction to the concepts of Life Cycle Cost Analysis. Life Cycle Cost Analysis is a process intended to support the comparison of remedial alternatives. Instead of evaluating only initial costs, this process evaluates the total costs associated with the life span of a project. Two hypothetical remediation sites are presented in the document as examples on how the Life Cycle Cost Analysis process can be applied. The life cycle costs for project alternatives for each site are evaluated and presented in this report.
39. Long Term Monitoring Network Optimization Evaluation for Operable Unit 2, Bunker Hill Mining and Metallurgical Complex Superfund Site, Idaho (2006)
This document provides a description and evaluation of a groundwater and surface water monitoring program evaluated using a three-tiered approach, including: (1) a qualitative evaluation, (2) a statistical evaluation of temporal trends in contaminant concentrations, and (3) a spatial statistical analysis (groundwater only) that assessed the degree to which the monitoring network addresses the objectives of the monitoring program, and other important considerations. The results of the evaluation were used to assess the optimal frequency of monitoring and the spatial distribution of the components of the groundwater monitoring network.
40. Long Term Monitoring Network Optimization Evaluation for Wash King Laundry Superfund Site, Lake County, Michigan (2006)
This document provides a description and evaluation of a groundwater monitoring program evaluated using a three-tiered approach, including: (1) a qualitative evaluation, (2) a statistical evaluation of temporal trends in contaminant concentrations, and (3) a spatial statistical analysis that assessed the degree to which the monitoring network addressed the objectives of the monitoring program, and other important considerations. The results of the evaluation were used to assess the optimal frequency of monitoring and the appropriate spatial distribution of the components of the groundwater monitoring network.
41. Optimization of Groundwater Monitoring at the Hanford Site (2006)
This report documents the review and recommendations provided for optimizing the groundwater monitoring program at two operable units at the Hanford site, including 300-FF-5 OU and LLMWA-3. Recommendations were made to improve the effectiveness of the long-term monitoring (LTM) program and achieve cost savings.

At the 300-FF-5 OU, the review team used Geostatistical Temporal/Spatial (GTS) methodology demonstrations using total uranium data from the site to derive recommendations for optimizing sampling frequency and well network locations. The goal of these demonstrations was to reduce information redundancy in LTM by lengthening recommended sampling intervals or by removing sampling locations. The review team recommended that a separate, simpler, directed engineering analysis be performed in parallel to the more detailed geochemical analysis to better understand and simulate the complex environmental fate and transport of uranium in the 300-FF-5 OU and determine if concentrations of uranium in groundwater will decline through natural attenuation mechanisms over a “reasonable” period of time. At the LLMWA-3 operable unit, groundwater monitoring was regulated under RCRA and the unit was in detection monitoring status. At the site, all monitoring wells were installed primarily on one side of the facility, based on the current groundwater flow direction. The review team recommended that this be avoided to account for changes in groundwater flow direction and to include at least one or two wells on each side of the facility, so that at least one upgradient well will be present regardless of any changes in groundwater flow direction over the anticipated 25-year useful lifespan of the new wells. Overall, the review team recommended a holistic approach to groundwater monitoring across various regulatory programs involved at the site, including CERCLA and RCRA. Other recommendations included periodic evaluation of new monitoring technologies that might provide direct or indirect information to augment traditional monitoring using such methods like in situ sensors that could provide more cost-effective approaches to monitoring and opportunities to further integrate the monitoring needs of the various regulatory programs.
42. Paducah 2006 Site Wide Remedy Review (2006)
This report documents the site wide technical and regulatory review of groundwater and soil remediation approaches at PGDP. The recommendations included evaluation and redesign of the Interim Remedy (electric resistive heating), including a formal comparison of the efficacy and cost of other in situ thermal technologies, such as steam injection and a combination of thermal technologies and consideration of other complementary treatment technologies, such as in situ bioremediation and in situ chemical reduction as a polishing step. Other recommendations included increased characterization of the source area prior to any remediation approach to reduce overall costs and improve performance by better defining the areas needing more aggressive treatment; an independent optimization review of the pump and treat systems; improve source term estimates and conceptual and mathematical site models; and optimize the groundwater and surface water monitoring programs.
43. Performance-Based Management (2006)
This document is the fifth in a series of documents on advanced Remedial Process Optimization topics. It provides an overview of concepts related to Performance-Based Management. Performance-Based Management is a goal-oriented uncertainty management methodology that is implemented through systematic planning and dynamic decision-logic that focuses on accelerating the achievement of desired end results or remedial action objectives. Performance-Based Management is presented using a combination of eight project management resources or techniques linked by an efficient communications hub. A case study is also provided as an example of the application of Performance-Based Management concepts.
44. Remediation System Evaluation, 57th and North Broadway Site, Wichita, Kansas (2006)
This document provides recommendations for optimizing an existing soil vapor extraction (SVE) and in-well air stripping systems by conducting additional site characterization, augmenting some of the SVE systems with air sparging, and changing some of the in-well air stripping systems to pump and treat systems. Cost reduction recommendations include taking some systems off-line and keeping better track of routine and non-routine costs. Technical improvement and site closeout recommendations include improving site documentation and making annual status reports to site stakeholders.
45. Remediation System Evaluation, American Creosote Works Site, Pensacola, Florida (2006)
This document provides recommendations for improving the effectiveness of an existing site groundwater remedy by reevaluating the groundwater cleanup and discharge criteria and implementing stronger institutional controls. Cost reduction recommendations include switching from a quarterly to a semi-annual groundwater monitoring program and reducing labor costs for the pump and treat system once it has been implemented.
46. Remediation System Evaluation, Penta Wood Products Site, Daniels, Wisconsin (2006)
This document provides recommendations for improving the effectiveness of an existing groundwater pump and treat system. Cost reduction recommendations include more accurately forecast treatment materials (granular activated carbon{GAC}) and disposal costs; modifying management of GAC units to reduce costs associated with GAC change outs and disposal; decreasing management costs, and keeping better track of routine and non-routine costs. The recommendation for site closeout involves transitioning the groundwater remedy from an extraction and light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) recovery to a bioventing system.
47. Draft Three-Tiered Long-Term Monitoring Network Optimization Evaluation for Camp Stanley Storage Activity, Texas (2005)
Provides a description and evaluation of the long-term monitoring program using a three-tiered approach, consisting of a qualitative evaluation of the program, evaluation of temporal trends in contaminant concentrations, and a statistical spatial analysis. Provides recommendations for monitoring network optimization, including assessment of the optimal frequency of monitoring and the spatial distribution of the monitoring network components; retaining or removing wells; and altering sampling frequency.
48. Remediation System Evaluation, Wyckoff/Eagle Harbor Superfund Site, Bainbridge Island, Washington (2005)
Provides recommendations for the final remedy to be applied at the soil and groundwater operable unit of the site. The recommendations include hydraulically isolating site contamination, followed by aggressively removing contaminated materials. The report also provides cost effective options for conducting the final remedial action.
49. Application of Flow and Transport Optimization Codes to Groundwater Pump-and-Treat Systems (2004)
Provides information on cost savings achieved by applying transport optimization codes to existing pump and treat systems when compared to the traditional trial-and-error approaches. Phase I of the demonstration included pre-optimization site screening and Phase II included the demonstration of transport optimization codes. At three test sites, results indicated that the potential cost savings from applying transport optimization algorithms exceeded the expected costs of applying the technology. Optimization results were not compared to the existing pump and treat system because the existing system was not designed with the updated version of the groundwater model.
50. Evaluation of Amendments for Mending the ISRM Barrier (2004)
This study conducted by Department of Energy evaluates chemical and biological amendments to improve the performance of the In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) Barrier at the 100-D Area of the Hanford Site in Washington. The reactive ISRM barrier was installed between 1999 and 2003 to treat a plume of Hexavalent chromium in the groundwater. Performance of the barrier declined causing elevated chromium concentrations in groundwater. The amendments evaluated to mend the barrier and restore its effectiveness include dithionite, calcium polysulfide, micron-scale iron, nano-scale iron, dissolved iron, and biostimulants. The amendments were evaluated using several criteria, including effectiveness, implementability, maintenance (longevity), safety, regulatory acceptance, and cost.
51. Final Report Long-Term Monitoring Groundwater Optimization at Site 49 Pease AFB, New Hampshire Using the Geostatistical Temporal/Spatial (GTS) Algorithm (2004)
Provides a description and evaluation of a long-term groundwater monitoring program using a Geostatistical Temporal/Spatial (GTS) algorithm. It involves identification of temporal redundancies and spatially redundant wells based on analysis of the sampling data and network. Recommendations include reduction in sampling frequency from annual to once every two years; removal of approximately 7 to 24 wells that are considered to be redundant for the monitoring program; and siting of new wells at approximately five additional locations.
52. Fuel-Specific Bioslurper System Modifications for Enhanced Cost Effectiveness (2004)
Provides information on cost reduction and improved efficiency of using prepump light non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPL) separation methods to control effluent emulsion formation from the bioslurper. The report also provides information on the reduction of concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in the aqueous and off-gas streams from the bioslurper when LNAPL is removed from the process stream prior to being taken in by the bioslurper system. Results indicate that a dual drop tube configuration is very effective in reducing TPH concentrations in the aqueous and vapor effluent, and in receiving floating solids
53. Long-Term Monitoring Groundwater Optimization at OU-12 Loring AFB, Maine Using the Geostatistical Temporal/Spatial (GTS) Algorithm (2004)
Provides a description and evaluation of a long-term groundwater monitoring program using a Geostatistical Temporal/Spatial (GTS) algorithm. It involves identification of temporal redundancies and spatially redundant wells based on analysis of the existing sampling data and network. Recommendations include reduction in sampling frequency from one every quarter to once every two quarters; follow-up analysis of the optimization plan after three to five years to determine if the sampling frequencies need to be altered and to identify any additional sampling wells showing spatial redundancies; removal of approximately 29 wells that are considered to be redundant for the monitoring program; and random rotation of sampling well points.
54. Long-Term Monitoring Groundwater Optimization at Site 133 Edwards AFB, California Using the Geostatistical Temporal/Spatial (GTS) Algorithm (2004)
Provides a description and evaluation of a long-term groundwater monitoring program using a Geostatistical Temporal/Spatial (GTS) algorithm. It involves identification of temporal redundancies and spatially redundant wells based on analysis of the existing sampling data and network. Recommendations include reduction in sampling frequency from annually to once every seven quarters; follow-up analysis of the optimization plan after three to five years to determine if the sampling frequencies need to be altered and to identify any additional sampling wells showing spatial redundancies; removal of approximately 48 wells that are considered to be redundant for the monitoring program; and random rotation of sampling well points.
55. Optimization of Groundwater Pump and Treat Systems at Hanford (2004)
This report documents the review and recommendations provided for optimizing five different groundwater pump and treat (P&T) systems including those at areas 100-D, 100-H, 100-KR-4, 100-NR-2 and at 200-UP-1. Recommendations to improve the efficiency of the P&T systems included improved source characterization and the conceptual site model to accurately characterize residual hexavalent chromium in the 100 Area vadose zone; evaluation of robust, lower-cost alternatives to chromium source treatment; consideration of persistent carbon sources, such as emulsions of vegetable oils, as an alternative treatment method to address the migration of chromium; and a minor increase in the number of monitoring points. Recommendations to reduce costs included recirculation of untreated water at the 100-H and 100-N areas; reduction in the number of operators; and consideration of alternative treatment methods such as zero-valent iron or other in-situ treatment methods. Recommendations for accelerating site closure include treatment of the source zone; clarification of remedial goals; and development of exit strategies.
56. Remediation Process Optimization: Identifying Opportunities for Enhanced and More Efficient Site Remediation (2004)
Provides information and guidance on systematic evaluation and management of uncertainty associated with a remediation processes by using Remedial Process Optimization (RPO) as a tool. It provides information on the components of an effective RPO proposal or program, describes the general regulatory and technical framework for evaluating remediation processes, and lays out key considerations when planning, designing, and implementing an optimization review.
57. RSE Report for Optimization of Groundwater Pump and Treat Systems at DOE Hanford Site, Washington (2004)
Provides an evaluation of groundwater pump and treat systems and recommendations to ensure effectiveness of the system in protecting human health and the environment, reducing costs, and accelerating site closeout. Recommendations include evaluating lower-cost alternatives such as use of resins and zero-valent iron for the treatment of chromium sources, increasing the number of monitoring points, making minor changes in the treatment and recirculation system to reduce costs, and reducing operator labor.
58. Streamlined Remediation System Evaluation (RSE-Lite), Cape Fear Wood Preserving Site, Fayetteville, North Carolina (2004)
Provides recommendations for improving system effectiveness, reducing costs, improving technical components of the system, and attaining site close out for the selected groundwater remedy at the site. The groundwater remedy consists of pump and treat, air sparging, nutrient-enhanced degradation, monitored natural attenuation, and DNAPL extraction.
59. Streamlined Remediation System Evaluation (RSE-Lite), Circuitron Corporation Superfund Site, East Farmingdale, New York (2004)
Provides recommendations for improving effectiveness of the existing pump and treat system by periodically verifying that institutional controls are still in place and reducing cost by eliminating unnecessary treatment components. Also provides recommended technologies that can be added to the remediation system to accelerate site closure.
60. Final Three-Tiered Groundwater Monitoring Network Optimization Evaluation for Former Mather Air Force Base (Main Base/SAC Plume Area), California (2003)
Provides a three-tiered evaluation of the groundwater monitoring program, consisting of a qualitative evaluation, an evaluation of temporal trends in contaminant concentrations, and a statistical spatial analysis. Provides recommendations to optimize and refine the monitoring program, including exclusion of monitoring wells that are spatially redundant and provide the same information as neighboring wells, or constantly show contaminant concentrations below detection levels or cleanup goals; and reduction in monitoring frequency at some wells that are distal from the source area and remedial system.
61. Optimization Report Addendum to 2002 Operation and Maintenance Effectiveness Report for U.S. Air Force Plant No. 6, Marietta, GA (2003)
Provides a description and evaluation of a long-term groundwater monitoring program using a Geostatistical Temporal/Spatial (GTS) algorithm. It involves identification of temporal redundancies and spatially redundant wells based on analysis of the sampling data and network. Recommendations include reduction in sampling frequency from quarterly to one every three quarters for wells related to the groundwater monitoring and operation and maintenance program; reduction in sampling frequency for the Interim Corrective Measures (ICM) influent and effluent from biweekly to monthly; re-evaluation of wells that are considered redundant for possible elimination from the monitoring program; and siting of two new wells at locations with the greatest uncertainty to delineate the extent of contamination.
62. Optimization Support Evaluation, Greenwood Chemical Site, Newtown, Virginia (2003)
Provides recommendations that include improving effectiveness of the existing pump and treat system by conducting additional sampling of residential wells and surface water, further delineating the plume and developing a capture zone, and installing an off-gas treatment unit. Recommendations for cost reduction include eliminating redundant groundwater sampling and bypassing the UV/oxidation treatment system.
63. Optimization Support Evaluation, Havertown PCP Site, Havertown, Pennsylvania (2003)
Provides recommendation for improving the effectiveness of the existing pump and treat system by continuing to investigate and seal abandoned sewer lines, further delineating the plume and developing a capture zone, and modifying O&M practices to reduce system downtime. Cost reduction recommendations include bypassing one to all three of the UV/oxidation units and reducing O&M costs associated with labor.
64. Remediation System Evaluation, Douglas Road Landfill, St. Joseph County, Indiana (2003)
Provides recommendations that include improving effectiveness of the current pump and treat system by conducting additional groundwater monitoring and conducting shallow groundwater investigations using direct push technology. Cost reduction recommendation includes reducing the level of QC/QA for data and finding an alternative discharge location.
65. Remediation System Evaluation, Higgins Farm Superfund Site, Princeton, New Jersey (2003)
Provides recommendations for improving efficiency of an existing pump and treat system, including closing down extraction wells that have reached their cleanup goals and modifying the groundwater monitoring program by reducing frequency of sampling. Also provided are suggestions on goals to be included in the site exit strategy.
66. Remediation System Evaluation, Reilly Tar & Chemical Corp. (Indianapolis Plant) Site, Indianapolis, Indiana (2003)
The document does not provide any recommendations for optimizing the current remediation system; instead recommendations are given to improve effectiveness in protecting human health and the environment. The recommendations include adding a cluster of piezometers and monitoring wells and performing a detailed capture zone evaluation. Also, recommendations are given for cost-effective approaches to evaluate and enhance the performance of the remedy.
67. Remediation System Evaluation, SMS Instruments, Deer Park, New York (2003)
Provides recommendations for improving the efficiency of the existing pump and treat system by improving the quality of data analysis. Cost reduction recommendations include reducing the labor costs associated with O&M, reducing the frequency of groundwater sampling, and reducing the frequency of vapor phase GAC replacements. Three potential site exit strategies are presented as well.
68. Final Logistics Center (FTLE-33) Remedial Action Monitoring Network Optimization Report, Fort Lewis, Washington (2002)
Provides results of a remedial action monitoring network optimization effort using Monitoring and Remediation Optimization System (MAROS) software, developed by the Air Force Center for Environmental Excellence (AFCEE). Recommendations include a small-scale increase in the overall number of monitoring wells and locations sampled, and reduction in the frequency at which samples are collected for a number of wells.
69. Remediation System Evaluation, Baird and McGuire Superfund Site (2002)
Suggestions for O&M cost reductions, such as reducing process monitoring, automating treatment plant, modifying sludge disposal procedure, and replacing current air strippers with a more efficient unit.
70. Remediation System Evaluation, Bog Creek Farm Superfund Site, Howell Township, Monmouth County, New Jersey (2002)
Provides recommendations that include improving effectiveness of the existing pump and treat system by GeoProbe investigation to better evaluate the extent of contamination and reduce cost by cutting down on O&M costs and modifying the groundwater monitoring program. Additional recommendations include modifying the system to accelerate site closure and reduce life cycle costs.
71. Remediation System Evaluation, Boomsnub/Airco Superfund Site, Hazel Dell, Washington (2002)
Provides recommendations for the existing remediation system that include conducting a hydrogeological analysis; updating site groundwater flows and contamination transport models; and using the updated information to help develop an exit strategy. Additionally, the report includes recommendations for improving technical efficiency of the system by removing an unnecessary tank and pump and improving the electrical components of the air stripper.
72. Remediation System Evaluation, Brewster Wellfield Superfund Site (2002)
Provides recommendations for potential modifications to existing groundwater P&T system, including conducting a GeoProbe investigation in a specified area followed by installation and groundwater sampling, defining the target capture zone, and refining the site conceptual model.
73. Remediation System Evaluation, Claremont Polychemical Superfund Site (2002)
Provides recommendations for potential modifications to existing groundwater P&T system, including converting depth-to-water measurements to water levels, analyzing process data and quarterly aquifer data, and better delineating the VOC plume.
74. Remediation System Evaluation, FCX Statesville Superfund Site (2002)
Provides recommendations for potential modifications to existing groundwater P&T system, including updating target containment zone, cleaning up site, and improving or replacing existing treatment system enclosure and header piping.
75. Remediation System Evaluation, Groveland Wells Superfund Site, Groveland, Massachusetts (2002)
Provides recommendations for improving cost and performance of an existing pump and treat system by switching from UV/oxidation to air stripping and evaluating the current groundwater monitoring system. Recommendations of improving the potential for site closeout include additional source area characterization followed by a limited feasibility study regarding more aggressive source removal options.
76. Remediation System Evaluation, McCormick and Baxter Superfund Site (2002)
Provides recommendations to improve effectiveness, reduce life-cycle costs, and gain site close-out for alternate strategies for containment of groundwater and NAPL contamination.
77. Remediation System Evaluation, Ott/Story/Cordova Superfund Site (2002)
Provides recommendations for reducing life-cycle costs of existing groundwater P&T system.
78. Remediation System Evaluation, Selma Pressure Treating Superfund Site (2002)
Provides recommendations for potential modifications to existing groundwater P&T system, including conducting a capture zone analysis, clearly delineating plume boundaries, developing potentiometric surface maps, and using the groundwater flow model to optimize the extraction system by relocating wells or adjusting pumping rates.
79. Remediation System Evaluation, Summitville Mine Superfund Site, Summitville, Colorado (2002)
Provides recommendations for improving efficiency of the existing remediation system by draining the site mine pool, providing suggestions on an upcoming sediment removal event, and conducting a hydrogeological evaluation to determine if a planned interceptor trench would provide expected capture of contaminated water. Cost reduction recommendations include reducing onsite surface water sampling, automation of the new treatment plant, and purchasing vehicles for the site instead of leasing them.
80. Final RPO Scoping Visit Report Defense Distribution Depot Susquehanna, Pennsylvania (2001)
Provides recommendations for system optimization, including evaluating the role of phytoremediation in natural attenuation of dissolved VOCs in the South Central Plume, and evaluating the processes, past practices, and precedents of implementing off-installation institutional controls for addressing the groundwater and surface water pathways
81. Groundwater Monitoring Program Evaluation Report for Sites OT-17, LF-03, and LF-04, Robins AFB, GA (2001)
Presents the results of the groundwater monitoring program evaluation for Installation Restoration Program sites OT-17, Landfill 3, and Landfill 4 at Robins Air Force Base in Warner Robins, Georgia.
82. Phase II RPO Evaluation Report for the Building 1325 UST Site, Castle Airport, California (2001)
Provides results of the Phase II Remedial Process Optimization evaluation performed by Parsons Engineering Science, Inc. at the Building 1325 underground storage tank site at Castle Airport, including providing a strategy for achieving regulatory site closure.
83. Phase II RPO Evaluation Report for the Fire Training Area 1 Site, Castle Airport, California (2001)
Provides results of the Phase II Remedial Process Optimization evaluation performed by Parsons Engineering Science, Inc. at the Fire Training Area 1 site at Castle Airport, including evaluation of the soil vapor extraction system and recommendations for regulatory site closure.
84. Remediation System Evaluation, Bayou Bonfouca Superfund Site (2001)
Provides recommendations for potential modifications to existing groundwater P&T system, including evaluating containment of free and dissolved phase contamination, and determining effectiveness of remedy in limiting migration of site-related contaminants into bayou.
85. Remediation System Evaluation, Cleburn Street Well Superfund Site (2001)
Provides recommendations for potential modifications to existing groundwater P&T system, including rehabilitating extraction wells, improving capture zone delineation, feeding well-purge water through air strippers, and conducting indoor air monitoring for PCE.
86. Remediation System Evaluation, Comm. Bay/South Tacoma Channel, Well 12A Superfund Site (2001)
Provides recommendations for potential modifications to existing groundwater P&T system, including improving capture zone analyses, conducting regular and consistent sampling, and analyzing influent to Well 9 for VOCs.
87. Remediation System Evaluation, Elmore Waste Disposal Superfund Site (2001)
Provides recommendations for potential modifications to existing groundwater P&T system, including additional characterization to better define plume, formal capture zone analysis, indoor air sampling, and surface water sampling.
88. Remediation System Evaluation, Hellertown Manufacturing Superfund Site (2001)
Provides recommendations for potential modifications to existing groundwater P&T system, including installing an additional monitoring well downgradient of the site to help delineate the plume, implementing institutional controls and deed restrictions, and investigating possible presence of an additional source area.
89. Remediation System Evaluation, MacGillis and Gibbs Superfund Site (2001)
Provides recommendations for potential modifications to existing groundwater P&T system, including developing and updating a target capture zone for PCP and chromium, regularly evaluating actual capture compared to target zone, implementing a long-term monitoring plan for specific aquifers, improving site security, and evaluating proposed new building that will potentially overlie NAPL.
90. Remediation System Evaluation, Mattiace Petrochemical Superfund Site (2001)
Provides recommendations for potential modifications to existing groundwater P&T system, including analyzing capture zones for groundwater extraction and delineating contaminant plume.
91. Remediation System Evaluation, Midland Products Superfund Site (2001)
Provides recommendations for potential modifications to existing groundwater P&T system, including delineating contaminant plume more accurately, and sampling for carrier oils quarterly for one year.
92. Remediation System Evaluation, Modesto Groundwater Contamination Superfund Site, Modesto, California (2001)
Provides recommendation for improving the efficiency of an existing soil vapor extraction and pump and treat system as well as reducing costs. Recommendations include conducting additional groundwater monitoring and evaluating alternative discharge locations. Technical improvement recommendations and close out strategies are also provided.
93. Remediation System Evaluation, Raymark Superfund Site (2001)
Provides recommendations for potential modifications to existing groundwater P&T system, including more accurate plume delineation and evaluation of capture zone, sealing of unused wells, and conducting indoor air monitoring.
94. Remediation System Evaluation, Savage Municipal Water Supply Superfund Site (2001)
Provides recommendations for potential modifications to existing groundwater P&T system, including reconfiguring system to dispose recovered solvent offsite, evaluating effectiveness of capture outside slurry wall, relocating recharge points beyond influence of extraction wells, verifying containment offered by slurry wall, and analyzing monthly operations data.
95. Remediation System Evaluation, Silresim Chemical Corp. Superfund Site (2001)
Provides recommendations for potential modifications to existing groundwater P&T system, including establishing a target capture zone for each layer in the groundwater flow model, utilizing enhanced particle tracking techniques for capture zone analysis, and conducting periodic monitoring of sediments in specific areas for VOCs.
96. RPO Phase II Evaluation Report for Defense Depot Memphis, Tennessee (2001)
Provides recommendations for optimizing SVE system, including considering deletion of four monitoring wells from current Dunn Field monitoring program, considering deletion of SVOCs and pesticides from target analyte list, and clarifying fraction organic carbon content of the fluvial aquifer to better predict cleanup time frames and plume migration distances.
97. RPO Phase II Evaluation Report for the Sharpe Defense Distribution Depot, San Joaquin, CA (2001)
Provides recommendations for optimizing SVE system, including selecting and implementing site-specific soil cleanup goals, discontinuing active SVE operations at specific sites, focusing SVE to TCE hot spots at the remaining active SVE sites, eliminating off-gas treatment of SVE vapor effluent based on system monitoring data, and implementing passive extraction of SVE systems during inactive periods of system cycling.
98. RPO Phase II Evaluation Report for the Tracy Defense Distribution Depot, San Joaquin, CA (2001)
Provides recommendations for SVE system optimization, including focusing SVE in TCE/PCE hot spots, eliminating off-gas treatment of SVE vapor effluent based on system monitoring data, and implement passive extraction of SVE systems during inactive periods of system cycling.
99. RPO Report For Site SD-57 Mather Air Force Base, California (2001)
Provides an assessment of the effectiveness and efficiency of remediation systems currently in operation for treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils at Site SD-57, as well as a plume of hydrocarbon-contaminated groundwater originating at Site SD-57. Evaluates supplemental or alternative treatment technologies that could potentially be applied at the site, and to determine if cleanup goals can be met more quickly and cost effectively by implementing these technologies.
100. AFCEE RPO Scoping Visit Draft Report Hanscom AFB, MA 30 October - 2 (2000)
Contains an evaluation of 8 sites at Hanscom Air Force Base amenable to optimization, and provides specific recommendations
101. Draft RPO Report For Operable Unit D, McClellan Air Force Base, California (2000)
Provides recommendations for modification of the existing groundwater P&T system, including identifying the wells removing the greatest mass and terminating operations at others, conducting regular SVE equilibrium testing, and evaluating the cost effectiveness of the current SVE catalytic oxidation treatment system.
102. Final RPO Report for Site LF014 Contaminant Plume Zone 1, Kelly AFB, TX (2000)
Provides an evaluation of alternatives to the existing extraction well system at Site LF014 to provide improved containment of groundwater. Other remedial actions under consideration include installation of a SVE system in the northwestern portion of the site, and regrading/revegetation of the site to minimize precipitation infiltration and resultant leachate generation.
103. Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, Campbell Street Fuel Farm (Pump and Treat Systems) (2000)
Provides recommendations for optimization of long-term monitoring, including shutting down specific trenches, continuing hot spot removal on an interim basis, and gathering MNA data to confirm the potential of a passive remedial approach for AS-143 once remaining hot spots have been removed.
104. Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, Operable Units 1 and 2 (Pump and Treat Systems) (2000)
Provides recommendations for optimization of long-term monitoring, including shutting down the OU 1 North system once contaminant mass removal from certain extraction wells reach asymptotic levels, consider using MNA as the long-term remedy, shutting down operation of the OU 1 South system at the earliest opportunity, and delineating the extent of contamination in the shallow and deep aquifer zones of OU 2.
105. Naval Air Station Brunswick, Eastern Plume (Pump and Treat System) (2000)
Provides recommendations for optimization of long-term monitoring, including beginning a formal evaluation of MNA, continue and enhance mass removal in the Eastern Plume, and modify the aboveground treatment system to allow effluent discharge to surface water.
106. Phytoremediation Using Constructed Wetlands at the Milan Army Ammunition Plant, Milan, Tennessee (2000)
Long-term monitoring and optimization conducted (no further details provided).
107. Remediation System Evaluation, Oconomowoc Electroplating Superfund Site (2000)
Provides recommendations for potential modifications to existing groundwater P&T system, including a capture zone analysis and additional delineation of groundwater contamination.
108. RPO Report for Building 3001 - Tinker AFB (2000)
Provides an evaluation of the feasibility of using SVE to remediate source-area soils.
109. RPO Report for Operable Unit 1 Northeast Disposal Area - George AFB (2000)
Provides recommendations for short-term P&T system modifications, including removing 11 of the existing 18 wells in the extraction network from service, reducing the system flow rate by as much as 50 percent, and evaluating alternate treatment and disposal options for extracted groundwater.
110. RPO Report for Operable Unit No. 1 - Hill AFB (2000)
Provides recommendations for modification of the Internal Draft Performance Standard Verification Plan, to include suggested text regarding procedures and methodologies for statistical evaluations of groundwater monitoring data.
111. RPO Report for Site 5/15 Contaminant Plume South Base Operable Unit No. 2 - Edwards AFB (2000)
Provides recommendations to improve SVE system performance, including terminating operation of the liquid-recovery system and reducing the SVE system flow rate by 20%, reducing the frequency of sampling, and reducing the number of groundwater monitoring wells sampled from 56 to 16.
112. RPO Scoping Visit (RSV) Defense Supply Center Richmond (DSCR) Draft Report 25-28 (2000)
Provides recommendations based on a Remedial Process Optimization evaluation, including performing quantitative trend analysis of plume, evaluating pump and treat extraction well effectiveness, and studying and reviewing MNA to verify appropriateness as an alternative technology.
113. RPO Scoping Visit Report and Final Work Plan for the Phase II RPO Evaluation at Castle AFB, California (2000)
Work plan for the RPO Phase II Evaluation planned at Castle AFB.
114. Final Report of Statistical Analysis: Optimization of Long Term Operations/ Long Term Monitoring (LTO/LTM) at Selected Groundwater Plumes at the Massachusetts Military Reservation, Cape Cod, Massachusetts (1999)
Provides a description and evaluation of a long-term monitoring program using an optimization algorithm, which involves identification of temporal redundancies in currently monitored wells and identification of spatially redundant wells. It also includes an estimation of cost savings resulting from reducing the number of sampling wells and sampling frequency. Recommendations include temporary removal of randomly selected data points at selected wells; ongoing review of the optimization plan to determine if the sampling frequency has to be altered and to identify any additional sampling wells showing spatial redundancies; and random rotation of sampling well points.
115. Groundwater Monitoring Case Study: Eastern Plume, NAS Brunswick, Maine (1999)
Describes cost reductions in long-term monitoring, including reducing the number of wells to be sampled and the sampling frequency.
116. Groundwater Monitoring Case Study: Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant/Sludge Drying Beds, MCLB Albany, Georgia (1999)
Describes cost reductions in long-term monitoring, including reducing sampling frequency at a former sludge drying bed site from quarterly to semiannually, and significantly reducing the number of contractor maintenance visits.
117. Groundwater Monitoring Case Study: Sludge Drying Beds, NAS Pensacola, Florida (1999)
Describes cost reductions in long-term monitoring, including reducing the sampling frequency at a former sludge drying bed and surge point site, and reducing the number of monitoring wells. NAS Pensacola is currently investigating natural attenuation, hot spot source reduction, and the possibility of ceasing pump and treat operations to further optimize the cost effectiveness of the program.
118. Long Term Monitoring Optimization Case Study, MCB Camp Lejeune, North Carolina (1999)
Provides recommendations for optimization of long-term monitoring of pump and treat systems, including reducing number of monitoring points, reducing the duration and frequency of monitoring, field-procedure efficiency improvements, and simplification of analyses.
119. Long Term Monitoring Optimization Case Study, NAS Patuxent River, Maryland (1999)
Provides recommendations for optimization of long-term monitoring, including considering eliminating two or three wells, reducing monitoring from quarterly to semi-annually, investigating the potential for using micropurging techniques by determining if well recharge is adequate, and reducing the analyte list.
120. Soil Vapor Extraction at Camp LeJeune Military Reservation, Site 82, Area A, Onslow County, North Carolina (1999)
SVE optimization conducted (no further details provided).
121. Long Term Monitoring Development Case Study, NWIRP Dallas, Texas (1998)
Provides recommendations for optimization of long-term monitoring, including eliminating approximately 80% of the installation monitoring points from the monitoring program, reducing sampling frequency, refining micropurging techniques, decreasing the analyte list, and coordinating the monitoring database with a GIS application.
122. Pump and Treat and Air Sparging of Contaminated Groundwater at the Gold Coast Superfund Site, Miami, Florida (1998)
Describes modifications to extraction system, including enlarging two extraction wells, shutting down system for four months, conducting air sparging in source areas, and adding peroxide to wells for a certain period of time.
123. Pump and Treat and Containment of Contaminated Groundwater at the Sylvester/Gilson Road Superfund Site, Nashua, New Hampshire (1998)
Describes modifications to extraction system, including adding six extraction wells.
124. Pump and Treat and In Situ Bioremediation of Contaminated Groundwater at the French Ltd. Superfund Site, Crosby, Texas (1998)
Describes modifications to treatment system, including adding second sheet-pile wall around DNAPL.
125. Pump and Treat and In Situ Bioremediation of Contaminated Groundwater at the Libby Groundwater Superfund Site, Libby, Montana (1998)
Describes modifications to extraction and treatment system, including testing and converting to low-shear pumps, abandoning four extraction wells and constructing a new one, and replacing a peroxide system for aeration of in situ bioremediation of source water with a bubbleless system.
126. Pump and Treat and Permeable Reactive Barrier to Treat Contaminated Groundwater at the Former Intersil, Inc. Site, Sunnyvale, California (1998)
Describes modifications to P&T system, including upgrading system and switching to PRB in 1995.
127. Pump and Treat of Contaminated Groundwater at the City Industries Superfund Site, Orlando, Florida (1998)
Describes modifications to P&T extraction system, including increasing pumping from leading edge of plume and decreasing pumping from upgradient wells.
128. Pump and Treat of Contaminated Groundwater at the Des Moines TCE Superfund Site, OU 1, Des Moines, Iowa (1998)
Describes modifications to P&T system, including changing air stripper media from spherical to chandelier type, and adding anti-corrosion and biofouling agents to the air stripper media.
129. Pump and Treat of Contaminated Groundwater at the Former Firestone Facility Superfund Site, Salinas, California (1998)
Describes modifications to P&T extraction system, including installing 10 additional wells off-site and increasing overall pumping rate for a 2-week period.
130. Pump and Treat of Contaminated Groundwater at the JMT Facility RCRA Site, Brockport, New York (1998)
Describes modifications to extraction and treatment system, including conducting full-scale rehabilitation of extraction well, installing an electrical and piping box at extraction well, and constructing an enclosure around the treatment system to consolidate system operation in one building.
131. Pump and Treat of Contaminated Groundwater at the Keefe Environmental Services Superfund Site, Epping, New Hampshire (1998)
Describes modifications to extraction system, including constructing two replacement extraction wells.
132. Pump and Treat of Contaminated Groundwater at the Mid-South Wood Products Superfund Site, Mena, Arkansas (1998)
Describes modifications to extraction and treatment system, including removing five extraction wells, continuously adjusting pumping schedule of extraction wells, and adding a carbon treatment system for one year.
133. Pump and Treat of Contaminated Groundwater at the Odessa Chromium I Superfund Site, OU 2, Odessa, Texas (1998)
Describes modifications to extraction and treatment system, including adding three injection wells, converting two monitoring wells to recovery wells, adding a chamber to the reaction tank, and adding a backwash unit for the filter.
134. Pump and Treat of Contaminated Groundwater at the Odessa Chromium IIS Superfund Site, OU 2, Odessa, Texas (1998)
Describes modifications to extraction and treatment system, including adding two injection wells, installing a recovery well, adding a chamber to the reaction tank, and adding a backwash unit for the filter.
135. Pump and Treat of Contaminated Groundwater at the Old Mill Superfund Site, Rock Creek, Ohio (1998)
Describes modifications to extraction and treatment system, including adding three collection trenches, and replacing two carbon canisters with one.
136. Pump and Treat of Contaminated Groundwater at the SCRDI Dixiana Superfund Site, Cayce, South Carolina (1998)
Describes modifications to extraction and treatment system, including adding a collection trench, reducing extraction wells by five, and replacing the tower air-stripper with a shallow air-stripper.
137. Pump and Treat of Contaminated Groundwater at the Sol Lynn/Industrial Transformers Superfund Site, Houston, Texas (1998)
Describes modifications to extraction and treatment system, including adjusting the pumping strategy because additional contamination in the silty aquifer identified.
138. Pump and Treat of Contaminated Groundwater at the Solid State Circuits Superfund Site, Republic, Missouri (1998)
Describes modifications to extraction and treatment system, including adding three wells off-site to contain the plume, and electronically linking the air stripper blower to transfer pumps so blower would shut off when not pumping.
139. Pump and Treat of Contaminated Groundwater at the U.S. Aviex Superfund Site, Niles, Michigan (1998)
Describes modifications to extraction and treatment system, including adjusting pumping rates for each well continuously to optimize the system based on the concentration data for each well, and adding pH adjustments to reduce scaling of equipment and discharge piping.
140. Pump and Treat of Contaminated Groundwater at the United Chrome Superfund Site, Corvallis, Oregon (1998)
Describes modifications to extraction and treatment system, including turning off some extraction wells, flushing some areas, switching to sending untreated water to POTW, and injecting deep aquifer water into upper aquifer.
141. Pump and Treat of Contaminated Groundwater at the Western Processing Superfund Site, Kent, Washington (1998)
Describes modifications to extraction and treatment system, including discontinuing operation of 210 shallow well points, installing deep wells, and adding metals precipitation to the treatment system.
142. Pump and Treat, In Situ Bioremediation, and In Situ Air Sparging of Contaminated Groundwater at Site A, Long Island, New York (1998)
Describes modifications to extraction system, including expanding the system by adding more sparging wells to address additional contamination discovered during demolition activities.
143. Remediation Tradeoffs Addressed with Simulated Annealing Optimization (1998)
Presents an optimization application building on a pump-and-treat model, yet assuming a priori removal of different portions of the source area to address the evolving management issue of more aggressive source remediation. Separate economic estimates of in-situ thermal remediation are combined with the economic estimates of the subsequent optimal pump-and-treat remediation to observe tradeoff relationships of cost vs. highest remaining contamination levels (hot spots).
144. A Cost-Effective Sampling of Groundwater Monitoring Wells: A Data Review & Well Frequency Evaluation
The report documents the application of a Cost-Effective Sampling (CES) program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory site for reviewing groundwater data and optimizing the groundwater monitoring plan. This report provides the CES methodology and a summary of cost savings and optimizations that resulted from the application of the CES program.
145. Enhanced In Situ Bioremediation Process at the ITT Roanoke Site, Roanoke, VA
Process optimization and modifications (no further details provided).
146. Groundwater Monitoring Network Optimization Evaluation for Wurtsmith Air Force Base (Site OT-24), Michigan
Provides a description and evaluation of the groundwater monitoring program using qualitative system information and temporal statistical analysis. Provides recommendations for optimization, including changes to the monitoring network such as removing spatially redundant wells while retaining wells with the longest sampling history and reduced sampling frequency. A spatial analysis, which is typically conducted as part of monitoring network optimization, was not considered appropriate for this site due to inconsistent groundwater flow direction due to pumping, and the limited number of monitoring wells in each zone.
147. Naval Air Station Pensacola, Optimization of RAO to Treat Chlorinated Hydrocarbons in Groundwater
Describes cost reductions in long-term monitoring, including reducing sampling frequency and number of constituents being analyzed.
148. Naval Submarine Base Kings Bay (In-Situ Chemical Oxidation)
Describes system optimization, such as implementing in situ chemical oxidation in addition to pump and treat, to reduce contaminant concentrations in source areas. MNA was implemented to address residual concentrations.
149. RPO Phase II Evaluation Report for OUs 1 and 4, Defense Depot Hill, Utah
Provides recommendations for optimization of P&T system, including cessation of operation with continued monitoring of groundwater conditions for one year for OU 1, and maintaining operation of system for OU 2 until cis-1,2-DCE concentrations fall below MCL, followed by elimination of 14 extraction wells and 16 injection wells.