Dredged Material Reclamation at the Jones Island Confined Disposal Facility, Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Site Name:

Jones Island Confined Disposal Facility

Location:

Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Period of
Operation:

SITE testing period: June 2001 to September 2002.

Cleanup
Type:

Field Demonstration

Technology:
Phytoremediation
-- Prior to the field demonstration, treatability studies were conducted by the technology developer at the USACE's Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) to determine the crops and grasses that would survive in the dredge material.
-- Four field plots, each containing four treatment cells, were established on the Confined Disposal Facility (CDF) by excavating, screening, and depositing soil in the cells.
-- Each test plot was 60 ft by 23 ft. The four treatment cells were each 12 ft by 20 ft. The intercell berms separating the treatment cells were 2 ft wide. The outer berms were 3 ft wide.
-- Each plot had four randomized treatments: corn hybrid, sandbar willow, local grasses, and an unplanted control (plant suppression).
-- Corn was planted twice during the growing season, from June through September.
-- The project duration was for two growing seasons.

Cleanup Authority:
USACE and the Milwaukee Port Authority.

Contacts:
SITE Demonstration Contact:
Steven Rock
EPA SITE Project Manager
National Risk Management Research Laboratory
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
5995 Center Hill Avenue
Cincinnati, OH 45224
Tel: (513) 569-7149
Fax: (513) 569-7879
Email: rock.steven@epa.gov

USACE Project Managers:
Richard Price
U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center
3909 Halls Ferry Road
Vicksburg, MS 39180-6199
Tel: 601-634-3636
Email: Richard.A.Price@erdc.usace.army.mil

David Bowman
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
Detroit District
477 Michigan Avenue
P.O. Box 1027
Detroit, MI 48231-1027
Tel: 313-226-2223
Email: David.W.Bowman@Ire02.usace.army.mil

SITE Program Contact:
Annette Gatchett
National Risk Management Research Laboratory
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
26 West Martin Luther King Drive
Cincinnati, OH 45268
Tel: (513) 569-7697
Email: gatchett.Annette@epa.gov

Contaminants:
Analyte concentrations in individual cells ranged from:
-- Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs): 77 to161 mg/kg
-- Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs): 2.0 to 3.6 mg/kg
-- Diesel Range Organics (DRO): 24 to 440 mg/kg

Waste Source:
The dredged material was contaminated from airborne and regulated industrial discharges, spills, and urban run-off.

Type/Quantity of Media Treated:
Dredged material containing PAHs, PCBs, and DRO above relevant Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR) and USEPA standards.

Purpose/Significance of Application:
This demonstration was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using phytoremediation to remediate dredged material at the Jones Island Confined Disposal Facility. The demonstration consisted of comparing and analyzing the results of three different plant species.

Regulatory Requirements/Cleanup Goals:
-- Reduce PAHs to Category 1 and 2 standards specified in WDNR NR 538.
-- Reduce PCBs to less than or equal to 1 mg/kg.
-- DRO to less than 100 mg/kg.

Results:
-- After two growing seasons, the three treatments plots had PAH concentrations at or below numerical standards for 7 of the 16 PAH compounds listed in Category 1 of the WDNR NR 538. The control plot had 8 compounds at or below Category 1 standards.
-- After two growing seasons, the three treatments plots had 8 PAH compounds at or below the Category 2 standards of the WDNR NR 538. The control plot had 11 compounds.
-- None of the treatments produced concentrations of PCBs of less than 1 mg/kg.
-- None of the treatments produced concentrations of DRO of less than 100 mg/kg.

Cost Factors:
The estimated costs for remediating 1,613 cubic yards (1 acre surface area by 1 foot deep) of dredged material was $47,227 using corn, and $44,280 using willow plants. The costs included equipment costs, direct installation costs, indirect costs, and direct and indirect annual operating costs.

Description:
The Jones Island Confined Disposal Facility (JICDF) is located in Milwaukee Harbor, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The facility receives dredged materials from maintenance operations of Milwaukee's waterways. USACE, in partnership with the Milwaukee Port Authority, is exploring a range of beneficial reuse options for the dredged material, from building and road fill to landscape material.

A field demonstration was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using phytoremediation to remediate the dredged material. Treatability studies were conducted to determine suitable crops and grasses. Once the plants were selected, field plots were established on the CDF by excavating, mixing, and depositing soil in test cells. The test plots closely followed established protocols for plot size, sampling, and statistical design. The field demonstration involved four different treatment plots: hybrid corn, an indigenous willow, local grasses, and an unplanted control. The EPA Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program (SITE) and USACE evaluated the demonstration from 2001 to 2002. The effectiveness of the various plantings was monitored directly through soil sampling and indirectly through a variety of assessments.

After two growing seasons, the three plant treatments plots had PAH concentrations at or below numerical standards for 7 of the 16 PAH compounds listed in Category 1 of the WDNR NR 538. The control plot had 8 compounds at or below Category 1 standards. Also, the three plant treatments plots had 8 PAH compounds at or below the Category 2 standards of the WDNR NR 538, with the control plot having 11 compounds at or below the standards. None of the treatments produced concentrations of PCBs of less than 1 mg/kg, and none produced concentrations of DRO of less than 100 mg/kg.

The estimated costs for remediating 1,613 cubic yards (1 acre surface area by 1 foot deep) of dredged material was $47,227 using corn, and $44,280 using willow plants. The costs included equipment costs, direct installation costs, indirect costs, and direct and indirect annual operating costs.