TABLE B-1 DOE SITE REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES BY WASTE CONTAMINANT

Technology Media Waste Contaminant Description Treatment Technology 
Metals
Arc Melter Vitrification Soil Toxic metals Vitrification Solidification/Stabilization
Bio-Immobilization of Heavy Metals Ground water, surface water, aqueous streams Toxic metals Uses bacteria to transform heavy metal ions to an insoluble, less toxic form Solidification/Stabilization
Biological Destruction of Tank Waste Supernatants, aqueous streams Toxic metals Biosorption Bioreactors
Electrokinetic Remediation of Heavy Metals and Radionuclides Soil Heavy metals Electrical current is supplied between two electrodes, ions of contaminant will be attracted to one of the electrodes Electrokinetic Separation
Encapsulation of Hazardous Wastes Liquid, slurry, solid waste Metals, inorganics Encapsulation of wastes Solidification/Stabilization
In Situ Ground Water Remediation Using Colloid Technology Ground water Heavy metals absorbed on clay and silica In situ colloid immobilization of contaminants Solidification/Stabilization
In Situ Vitrification of Contaminated Soils Soil Heavy metals Immobilization Solidification/Stabilization
Mitigation Barrier Covers Arid soils Soluble metals Containment/ Treatment Passive/Reactive Treatment Walls
Polyethylene Encapsulation of Radionuclides and Heavy Metals Aqueous salt and concentrate, saltcake, sludge, ash, ion exchange resin in tanks Toxic metals (e.g., Cr, Pb, Cd) Encapsulation Solidification/Stabilization
Remediation of Metals Contaminated Soils Using Ligand-Based Extraction Technology Soil Pb, Hg, Cr Density classification followed by extraction to remove metals from soil Separation, Chemical Extraction
Mixed Waste
Dynamic Underground Stripping of VOCs Soil, ground water Mixed waste Enhanced Removal Thermal Treatment
Electrokinetic Remediation of Heavy Metals and Radionuclides Soil Heavy metals and Radionuclides Electrical current is supplied between two electrodes, ions of contaminant will be attracted to one of the electrodes Electrokinetic Separation
In Situ Ground Water Remediation Using Colloid Technology Ground water Mixed waste In situ colloid immobilization of contaminants Solidification/Stabilization
In Situ Vitrification of Contaminated Soils Soil Mixed waste Destruction/ Immobilization Solidification/Stabilization
Plasma Hearth Process Soil, stored waste Mixed waste Waste Form Enhancement Solidification/Stabilization
Organics
Adsorption of BTEX Using Organozeolites Ground water, Surface Water Single-ring aromatics, BTEX Adsorption of aromatic compounds Adsorption/Absorption
Arc Melter Vitrification Soil Organics Vitrification Solidification/Stabilization
Biological Destruction of Tank Waste Supernatants, aqueous streams Organics Biosorption Bioreactors
Bioreactors for Bioremediation Ground water TCE, PCE, Vinyl Chloride, DCE, TCA, and BTEX Uses a bioreactor to biodegrade unwanted chlorinated chemicals Bioreactors
Bioremediation of High Explosives by Plants Soil Nitroaromatic compounds, TNT Bioremediation Enhanced Bioremediation
Dry Barriers for Containment and Remediation at Waste Sites Soil VOCs, volatile solvents, petroleum fuels Drying of horizontal soil layer to create a barrier Landfill Cap
Dynamic Underground Stripping of VOCs Soil, ground water VOCs Enhanced Removal Thermal Treatment
Engineered System for In Situ Bioremediation of Ground Water Ground water CCl4 Micro-organisms biodegrade CCl4 to harmless chemicals Enhanced Biodegradation
High-Energy Corona Gas, aqueous and non-aqueous liquids VOCs, halogenated solvents (e.g., TCE, PCE, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, diesel fuel, gasoline) Destruction of VOCs at room temperature High Energy Destruction
In Situ Air Stripping of VOCs Using Horizontal Wells Permeable soils, ground water VOCs, light hydrocarbons, chlorinated solvents, TCE, PCE Enhanced Removal Directional Wells, In-Well Air Stripping
In Situ Ground Water Remediation Using Colloid Technology Ground water Pesticides In situ colloid immobilization of contaminants Solidification/Stabilization
In Situ Vitrification of Contaminated Soils Soil VOCs Destruction/ Immobilization Solidification/Stabilization
In Well Vapor Stripping Ground water VOCs Gas is bubbled through contaminated ground water to liberate contaminants In-Well Air Stripping
Methane-Enhanced Bioremediation for the Destruction of TCE Using Horizontal Wells Soil, ground water Halogenated aliphatic organics, TCA, TCE, PCE Co-metabolic Destruction Enhanced Biodegradation
Mitigation Barrier Covers Arid soils VOCs, organics Containment/ Treatment Passive/Reactive Treatment Walls
Plasma Hearth Process Soil, stored waste Organics Waste Form Enhancement Solidification/Stabilization
Six-Phase Soil Heating Soil VOCs, SVOCs Extraction Thermal Treatment
Thermal Enhanced Vapor Extraction System Arid soils VOCs, SVOCs, VOC-oil mixtures, chemicals with vapor pressures <0.002atm @20C Extraction Thermal Treatment
Tunable Hybrid Plasma Air VOCs Organic compounds are destroyed or oxidized with an electron beam High Energy Destruction
VOC Off-Gas Membrane Separation Gas stream VOCs, halogenated solvents, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform Membrane Separation Membrane Separation
VOC Recovery and Recycle Air VOCs A Brayton cycle heat pump condenses an air stream and VOCs can be captured and re-used or disposed Vapor Phase Carbon Adsorption
Radioactive
Biological Destruction of Tank Waste Supernatant aqueous streams Various radionuclides, TRU Biosorption Bioreactors
Chelators for Application In Radioactive Actinide Waste Remediation Soil, Process waste streams Pu Selective removal of radioactive and highly toxic actinides with organic chelators Separation
Compact Processing Units for Radioactive Waste Treatment Liquids, sludges, slurries High-level, low-level, TRU Biosorption Ion Exchange
Cryogenic Retrieval of Buried Waste Soil, buried waste TRU Freezing/ Retrieval Containment Excavation, Retrieval, and Off-Site, Separation
Electrokinetic Remediation of Heavy Metals and Radionuclides Soil Radionuclides Electrical current is supplied between two electrodes, ions of contaminant will be attracted to one of the electrodes Electrokinetic Separation
In Situ Ground Water Remediation Using Colloid Technology Ground water Pu In situ colloid immobilization of contaminants Solidification/Stabilization
In Situ Vitrification of Contaminated Soils Soil Various radionuclides, TRU Immobilization Solidification/Stabilization
Polyethylene Encapsulation of Radionuclides and Heavy Metals Aqueous salt and concentrate, saltcake, sludge, ash, ion exchange resin in tanks Various radionuclides, TRU Encapsulation Solidification/Stabilization
Remediation of Metals Contaminated Soils Using Ligand-Based Extraction Technology Soil U Density classification followed by extraction to remove metals from soil Separation, Chemical Extraction
Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Ion Exchange Resin for Cesium Removal Cs supernatant salt streams Cs Ion Exchange Ion Exchange
Selective Extraction/Leaching of Uranium from Soil Soil, sediment U Attrition scrubbing and carbonate leaching remove uranium from soil Chemical Extraction
Other or Waste Independent
Biological Destruction of Tank Wastes Supernatants, aqueous streams Nitrate Biosorption Bioreactors
Cryogenic Retrieval of Buried Waste Soil, buried waste Hazardous waste Freezing/ Retrieval Containment Excavation, Retrieval, and Off-Site, Separation
Decision Support System To Select Migration Barrier Cover Systems Arid and humid soils Waste Independent Multi-objective Decision Making Software System Passive/Reactive Treatment Walls
Hydraulic Impact End Effector Hard waste forms in tanks N/A Fracturing of solid waste forms Fracturing
Medium-Pressure Waterjet Dislodging and Conveyance End Effector Using Confined Sluicing Supernatant, sludge, saltcake in tanks Waste Independent Confined Sluicing Excavation, Retrieval, and Off-Site
Polymer Gel as a Barrier for Ground Spill Contaminants Soil Applicable to many chemicals and radioactive contaminants (depending on the polymer barrier material selected). Injection of a wall-forming fluid that gels in situ Solidification/Stabilization
Remote Excavation System Soil Waste Independent Retrieval Excavation, Retrieval, and Off-Site
Subsurface Barrier Emplacement Development Soil Waste Independent An impermeable grout barrier is placed beneath the waste to prevent further contamination Landfill Cap