TABLE 3-12 COMPLETED PROJECTS: IN SITU BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT FOR GROUND WATER, SURFACE WATER, AND LEACHATE



Site Name/
Contact
Technology/
Vendor
Media Treated Contaminants Treated Operating Parameters Materials Handling Residuals Management Comments
Bendix Corp./Allied
Automotive St. Joseph, MI
Cometabolic treatment Ground water TCE, DCE, DCA,VOCs       CERCLA Lead Predesign - anaerobic cycle to treat TCE
Tinker AFB and ORNL

Alison Thomas AL/EQM-OL 139 Bames Drive, Tyndall AFB, FL 32403
(904) 283-6303

Cometabolic treatment           Ex situ methanotrophic bioreactor
Site Name/
Contact
Technology/
Vendor
Media Treated Contaminants Treated Operating Parameters Materials Handling Residuals Management Comments
DOE Classified Burial Ground, Oak Ridge K-25 Site

Rashalee Levine, U.S. DOE (301) 903-7920

Co-metabolic Treatment Ground water, Seep TCE, Organics Two different reactors where microorganisms were grown to form biofilms over the surfaces within the packed-bed. Methanotrophic and pseudomonas microorganisms used. Ex-situ bioreactors. Generation of chloride ions. may also have some effectiveness in treating fuels and pesticides. Also, treatability is highly dependent upon the biodegradability of the contaminants. 1994
DOE
Savannah River Site
Aiken, SC

Terry C. Hazen
Westinghouse Savannah River Co.
P.O. Box 616 Bldg. 773-42A
Aiken, SC 29802
(803) 725-5178

Cometabolic treatment   TCE/PCE <2ppb       Methane and air injected into seepage basin by horizontal wells
Site Name/
Contact
Technology/
Vendor
Media Treated Contaminants Treated Operating Parameters Materials Handling Residuals Management Comments
Naval Communication Station, Scotland

2/85 to 10/85
(U.S. Navy)

Deh Bin Chan
(805) 982-4191

Bioremediation

In situ soil, in situ ground water

Soil, ground water

Soil quantity approximately 800 m in area, depth unknown

TPH (No. 2 diesel fuel) Microorganisms function best between 20 C and 35 C. Runoff water collected in a trench None The contaminated area had considerable slope, and the contaminated soil was a thin layer over a relatively impermeable rock substrate.
Mayville Fire Department, Mayville, MI

Jon Mayes (517) 684-9141

Enhanced Biodegradation Ground water BTEX Ground water treatment with indigenous organisms   In situ biodegradation. BTEX - 1/800/70/300 ppb
Site Name/
Contact
Technology/
Vendor
Media Treated Contaminants Treated Operating Parameters Materials Handling Residuals Management Comments
DOE Demo
Savannah River Site, SC

Nate Ellis
(803) 952-4846
Brian Loony
(803) 952-5181

Aerobic Biodegradation Ground water TCE, PCE @ 1,000 ppb; 90% removal efficiency Aquifers must be homogenous Methanotrophic fluidized bed or trickle filter bioreactor <1 lb/day produced Water high in copper may inhibit the process - Cost about $0.50/gallon.
EPA Demo
Williams AFB, AZ

Completed in 1992

Kim Lisa Kreiton
(513) 569-7328
David Mann
(219) 868-5823

Augmented subsurface bioremediation Soil & water Hydrocarbons (halogenated and nonhalogenated) In situ Insertion of microaerophilic bacteria and nutrients. Hardy bacteria can treat contaminants over a wide temperature range. Only degradation products are CO2 & H2O Failed to meet cleanup standards for BTEX.
Site Name/
Contact
Technology/
Vendor
Media Treated Contaminants Treated Operating Parameters Materials Handling Residuals Management Comments
DOE Savannah River Site, SC

Terry C. Hazen
(803) 725-5178

Biodegradation Soil & Ground water TCE, PCE declined to <2 ppb In situ Injection of 1-4% methane/air into aquifer None High copper concentration can inhibit the process.
$150K cap
DOE Demo
Hanford Site, WA

Thomas M. Brouns
(509) 376-7855
Rodney S. Skeen
(509) 376-6371

Biological treatment Ground water Nitrate reduced by 99% from 400 ppm. CCl4 reduced by 93% from 200 ppb In situ Provides ultimate destruction of contaminant No spent activated carbon need be disposed Requires half the time for remediation, very cost-effective.
Site Name/
Contact
Technology/
Vendor
Media Treated Contaminants Treated Operating Parameters Materials Handling Residuals Management Comments
NAS Fallon, NV 1992

U.S. Navy, Public Works Department (702) 426-2772

Bioventing Ground water Hydrocarbons       Airfield
Air Force & DOE Demo
Tinker AFB, OK

1989

Alison Thomas
(904) 283-6028

In situ & above-ground biological treatment of trichloroethylene Ground water 80% destruction of TCE In situ or in a bioreactor Bioreactor design uses methane degrading bacteria to cometabolize TCE TCE destroyed Alternative system using altered microorganisms is being tested at Hauscomb AFB, MA.
Site Name/
Contact
Technology/
Vendor
Media Treated Contaminants Treated Operating Parameters Materials Handling Residuals Management Comments
Air Force Demo
Eglin, AFB, FL

1/94-10/94

Alison Thomas
(904) 283-6028

In situ anaerobic biodegradation Ground water Jet fuel (toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene) In situ; nitrate is added to serve as electron acceptor
 
Benzene is recalcitrant under strict anaerobic conditions Cost $160-$230/gallon fuel removed.
Air Force Demo
Kelly AFB, TX & Eglin AFB, FL

Catherine M. Vogel
(904) 283-6036

In situ biodegradation Soil & Ground water Hydrocarbons - fuels, fuel oils, & nonhalogenated solvents In situ Nutrients introduced into aquifer through irrigation wells - some precipitation problems occurred
 
Site characterization necessary to determine soil/chemical compatibility.
Site Name/
Contact
Technology/
Vendor
Media Treated Contaminants Treated Operating Parameters Materials Handling Residuals Management Comments
DOI Demo
Picatinny Arsenal, NJ

Thomas E. Imbrigiotta
(609) 771-3900

In situ biodegradation Ground water 82% removal of vapor-phase TCE after 8 days In situ - Vapor stream is amended with oxygen and methane, propane, or natural gas Venting unsaturated soil or sparging contaminated well near source TCE is anaerobically broken down into DCE then VC and finally to ethylene, which will breakdown and volatilize Use of surfactants to enhance desorption from aquifer sediments is being studied.
DOI Demo
Defense Fuel Supply Point, SC

Late summer 1993

Dr. Don A. Vroblesky
(803) 750-6115

In situ enhanced bioremediation Ground water Jet fuel In situ Uncontaminated ground water is amended with nutrients and pumped into a series of infiltration galleries Ground water extracted and discharged to treatment facility Microbes that degrade contamination occur naturally in contaminated ground water.
Site Name/
Contact
Technology/
Vendor
Media Treated Contaminants Treated Operating Parameters Materials Handling Residuals Management Comments
DOE Tech Demo
(USGS) Galloway Township, NJ

1988

Herbert T. Buxton
(609) 771-3900

In situ vapor extraction and bioventing design Soil & Ground water Gasoline AIRFLOW - an adaption of the USGS ground water flow simulator MODFLOW to perform airflow simulations
 
 
Stalworth Timber
Beatrice, AL

Jason Darby
(404)347-3433

In situ enhanced bioremediation Ground water   In situ Addition of O2 potassium nitrate, potassium phosphate, and molasses    
Park City
Park City, KS

John Wilson
(405)332-8800

In situ enhanced bioremediation Ground water Petro, benzene

Benzene treated to 5 ppb

In situ Ammonium chloride and nitrate addition   $650K expected total
Site Name/
Contact
Technology/
Vendor
Media Treated Contaminants Treated Operating Parameters Materials Handling Residuals Management Comments
Mayville Fire Department Mayville, MI

Jon Mayes
(517)684-9141

In situ enhanced bioremediation Ground water BTEX (1/800/70/300 ppb) In situ Treatment with indigenous organisms    
Dover AFB
Dover, DE

Milton Beck
(302)677-6845

In situ enhanced bioremediation

Oxygen enhancement with Air Sparging and Bioventing

Ground water (230,000 m3) PAHs, TCE metals, solvents In situ     Total full scale $1.2M
French Limited
Crosby, TX

Judith Black
(214)655-6735

In situ enhanced bioremediation

CERCLA Lead air sparge, O2, and nutrient addition

Ground water PCB, As, and petroleum

Treated to MCLs

In situ     Total $90M
Site Name/
Contact
Technology/
Vendor
Media Treated Contaminants Treated Operating Parameters Materials Handling Residuals Management Comments
Knispel Construction Site
Horseheads, NJ

Frank Peduto
(518)457-2462

In situ enhanced bioremediation UST Lead - H2O2 and nutrient addition Ground water Petroleum hydrocarbons

treated to 5 ppb

In situ     O&M $250K
Orkin Facility
Fort Pierce, FL

Joe Malinowski
(404) 888-2895/TD>

In situ enhanced bioremediation H2O2 and nutrient addition Ground water Chlordane and heptachlor In situ     TSCA Lead
Farfield Coal & Gas
Farfield, IA

Steve Jones
(913) 551-7755

In situ enhanced bioremediation H2O2 and nitrate injection Ground water Coal tar BTEX, PAHs

Treated to 1 ppb benzene, 200 ppt cPAHs

In situ     Total $1.6M
Site Name/
Contact
Technology/
Vendor
Media Treated Contaminants Treated Operating Parameters Materials Handling Residuals Management Comments
DOE K-25 Site 1994

U.S. Department of Energy (301) 903-7920

Biodegradation Ground water TCE, Organics       Demonstration of Cometabolic Techniques
Libby Ground Water Superfund Site 1995

National Risk Management Research Laboratory (513) 569-7949

Biodegradation Ground water PAHs, PCP       Wood Preserving Facilities
Site Name/
Contact
Technology/
Vendor
Media Treated Contaminants Treated Operating Parameters Materials Handling Residuals Management Comments
Public Service Company of Colorado, CO 1992

U.S. EPA Region 8

Bioremediation Ground water BTEX       Electric Utility Site
Kennedy Space Center, FL

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (510)423-3118

Bioremediation Ground water TCE        
Site Name/
Contact
Technology/
Vendor
Media Treated Contaminants Treated Operating Parameters Materials Handling Residuals Management Comments
CSX McCormick Derailment Site, SC

Steve Spurlin (404) 347-3931

Enhanced Biodegradation - Anaerobic biodegradation Ground water BTEX Solubilization of nitrate. In situ circulation. Residual wastewater sent off-site for treatment. Derailment, 130K gallon spill. Depth of treatment approximately 2-12 ft. Operational; projected completion summer 1997.
Automotive St. Joseph, MI

Bendix Corp./Allied

Enhanced Biodegradation - Anaerobic biodegradation Ground water TCE, DCE, DCA, VC CERCLA Lead Predesign - anaerobic cycle to treat TCE. Nitrate serves as electron acceptor. Solubilized nitrate is circulated throughout ground water contamination zones to provide electron acceptors for biological activity and enhance the rate of degradation of organic contaminants. In situ biodegradation. A mixed oxygen/nitrate system would prove advantageous in that the addition of nitrate would supplement the demand for oxygen rather than replace it, allowing for benzene to be biodegraded under microaerophilic conditions.
Site Name/
Contact
Technology/
Vendor
Media Treated Contaminants Treated Operating Parameters Materials Handling Residuals Management Comments
Park City Site, Park City, KS

John Wilson (405) 332-8800

Enhanced Biodegradation - Anaerobic biodegradation Ground water Petro, Benzene Nitrate and ammonium chloride are circulated throughout the contamination zones. Solubilization of nitrate and ammonium chloride. In situ biodegradation. Benzene - 5 ppb. Expected cost - $650K. 1992
Burlington Northern, Somers Plant, MT

Jim Harris (406) 449-5720

Enhanced Biodegradation - in situ addition of nutrients and oxygen Ground water Phenols, Creosote   In situ addition Intrinsic biodegradation Wood Preserving. Operational since May 1994; completion date unknown
Site Name/
Contact
Technology/
Vendor
Media Treated Contaminants Treated Operating Parameters Materials Handling Residuals Management Comments
U.S. AEC site: Fort Wainwright, Alaska

Michael Lilly (mrlilly@usgs.gov)

Natural Attenuation Active ground water/ surface water system Chlorinated hydrocarbons Regular sampling and sample analysis.   In situ contamination degradation Still under investigation; results will be published. Site remains active.
Columbus AFB, MS

Tom deVenoge, USAF
Tyndall AFB, FL
(904)283-6205

Natural Attenuation Ground water Hydrocarbons In situ Controlled releases of various hydrocarbons were extensively monitored and modeled over time    
Site Name/
Contact
Technology/
Vendor
Media Treated Contaminants Treated Operating Parameters Materials Handling Residuals Management Comments
Aberdeen, MD Organic Pumps, Phyto- volatilization, Rhizofiltration Ground water Trichloro- ethylene,
Trichloroethane
      Plants used: Poplar Trees
Ogden, UT Phytoextraction Ground water, Soil Petroleum Hydrocarbons       Plants used: Alfalfa, Poplar Juniper, Fescue
U.S Air Force Facility, Fort Worth, TX

Steve Rock (513) 569-7149

Phyto- remediation Ground water Trichloro- ethylene (TCE) Eastern cottonwood trees. Depth to ground water is 6 to 10 feet Evaluating difference between planting seedlings (whips) and older trees (1 to 1-inch caliper). Rows planted perpendicular to plume. Up gradient controls and 20 monitoring wells up- and down-gradient have been installed.   Older trees cost substantially more, but may send their roots to the water table more quickly
Site Name/
Contact
Technology/
Vendor
Media Treated Contaminants Treated Operating Parameters Materials Handling Residuals Management Comments
Milan Army Ammunition Plant, TN

Darlene Bader, U.S. Army Environmental Center, (410) 612-6861

Phyto- remediation Ground water Explosives (TNT, RDX, HMX, DNT) Constructed wetlands Phase I started 1995   Plants used: Duckweed, Parrot Feather
DOE, Bear Creek, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN

Manufacturing Technology Information Service

Phyto- remediation

Phytotech, SAIC

Ground water Uranium Sunflower plants Grown hydroponically in small greenhouse    

Sources: Innovative Treatment Technologies: Annual Status Report (EPA, Eighth Edition, Nov. 1996). Completed North American Innovative Remediation Technology Demonstration Projects (EPA, Aug.1996)