DOI Demo
Bureau of Mines

Tom Jeffers
(801) 524-6164

BIO-FIX beads Water Metals - lead, cadmium, arsenic Porous polymeric biomass beads with affinity for metals Excellent handling - low maintenance Adsorbed metals removed using dilute mineral acids Able to achieve drinking water standards.
EPA Demo
MacGillis & Gibbs Superfund Site, MN

7/89 to 9/89

Mary Stinson
(908) 321-6683
Dennis Chilcote
(612) 942-8032

Biological aqueous treatment system Ground water PCP reduced to <1ppm. lowest flow removed 99% of contaminants In mix tank, pH is adjusted & inorganic nutrients added Mixing Discharged to POTW or reused on-site Runs as anaerobic or aerobic. Does not treat metals.
DOI Demo

Late Summer 1993

Paulette Altringer
Darren Belin
(801) 584-4152 or 4155

Biological arsenic remediation Wastewater Arsenic reduced from 13 to <0.5 mg/l Addition of anaerobic sulfate- reducing bacteria Two stage reactor, arsenic precipitation and column system Minimum volume arsenic precipitate sludge Advantage: reduction in generation of sludge volumes compared to typical ferris arsenic precipitation circuits.
DOI Demo
Bureau of Mines, NV

6/92 to 10/92

Paulette Altringer
Richard H. Lien
(801) 584-4152 or 4106

Biological cyanide detoxification Wastewaters Cyanide reduced from 20 ppm to 2 ppm Flow rate up to 300 gpm

Greater than 40-ppm phosphate

Bio-activated water use to rinsed metal waste heap Chemical treatment as a polishing step Alternative rinsing technology oxidized cyanide by activating natural or introduced populations of cyanide- oxidizing bacteria.
DOI Demo
Bureau of Mines, UT

Summer 1993

Paulette Altringer
D. Jack Adams
(801) 584-4152 or 4148

Biological reduction of selenium Process & wastewaters Selenium reduced from 30 to 1.2 ppm in 144 hours; 4.2 to 1.6 ppm in 48 hours. Selenium in uranium wastewater reduced from 0.58 to 0.03 ppm in 48 hours. Uses on-site equipment (carbon tanks, sand filters) to reduce cost. Activated carbon or sand serves as growth surface for bacteria. Wastewater and nutrient pumped through bed. Commercial fertilizers and/or sugar containing agricultural wastes provide bacterial nutrient supplements. Selenium is precipitated and removed by flushing or cross-flow filtration Uranium wastewaters may be treatable. Technology involves biostimulation of indigenous or introduced selenium- reducing bacteria.
Navy Demo, Naval Weapons Station Seal Beach, CA

Steve MacDonald
(310) 594-7273
Carmen Lebron

Bioremediation of aromatic hydrocarbons Soil & Ground water 1 ppb to 4 ppm of BTEX Three 80-liter bioreactors at combined capacity of 72 liters/day Native micro- organisms. Site soil is placed in bioreactors and contaminated ground water is pumped through bioreactors Effluent cleaned to drinking water standards for BTEX
EPA Demo
St. Joseph, MI

Ronald Lewis
(513) 569-7856
Steve Lupton
(708) 391-3224

Immobilized cell bioreactor (ICB) biotreatment system Ground water and industrial wastewater <99% removal efficiencies of organics Pretreatment - pH adjustment and oil/water separation. Proprietary reactor medium and design maximized biological degradation Aerobic/ Anaerobic fixed film bioreactor Contaminants to CO2, water, and biomass. The effluent produced is reinjected Advantages: high treatment capacity, compact system design, reduced operations costs.
Air Force & DOE Demo
Tinker AFB, OK


Alison Thomas
(904) 283-6028

In situ & aboveground biological treatment of trichloro- ethylene Ground water 80% destruction of TCE In situ or in a bioreactor Uses methane degrading bacteria to co-metabolize TCE TCE degraded System using altered micro- organisms is being tested at Hauscomb AFB, MA.
Hanscomb AFB, MA

Alison Thomas
(904) 283-6303

Bioreactor. Testing of constitutive TCE degrading microbe Ground water 550 ppb TCE. Attained about 85 ppb.        
Dow Chemical Site, TX

Alison Thomas
Tyndall AFB

Bioreactor: fluid bed reactor Ground water Chlorobenzene degradation. 140 ppm chlorobenzene. Attained <5 ppb chlorobenzene        
Burleigh Tunnel
Silver Plume, CO

Rick Brown
Colorado Dept. of Health
(303) 692-3383
James Lewis (303) 692-3383

Manmade wetland ecosystem based treatment Ground water 50-60 ppm of zinc. Attained 99% reduction in 3 months 99% removal of iron, 94% removal of lead, 84% reduction in nickel.        
EPA Demo
Burleigh Tunnel, CO


Edward Bates
(513) 569-7774

Wetlands based treatment Influent waters Metals Principal components - soils, microbial fauna, algae, and vascular plants Natural processes - filtration, ion exchange, adsorption, absorption, and precipitation
Manual developed - Wetland Designs for Mining Operations - available from NTIS.
Big Five Tunnel, CO (near Idaho Springs)

Edward Bates (513) 569-7774, Thomas Wildeman (303) 273-3642

Constructed Wetlands Wastewater Metals, acid mine drainage Principal components - organic soils, microbial fauna, algae, and vascular plants   Precipitated and adsorbed metals as hydroxides and sulfides settle in quiescent ponds or are filtered out as water percolates through the soil or the plant substrate. The process can be adapted to treat neutral and basic tailings solutions.
Bear Creek, Oak Ridge, TN

Technical: A. J. Stewart; Oak Ridge, Tennessee (800)356-4USA

Constructed Wetlands Ground water Nitrate and Uranium Principal components - pea gravel and various species of emergent aquatic plants. Cell pump powered by solar panels. Other measured parameters are pH, dissolved oxygen concen- tration, and water temperature.     Removal efficiencies greater than 90% for nitrate are expected.
Naval Amphibious Base in Little Creek, Virginia

J.P. Lefave
NFESC Code 411 Port Hueneme, CA 93043

(805) 982-1973
DSN: 551-1973

Constructed Wetlands Surface water, stormwater runoff Non-point source pollution The cells each measure 60 X 650 ft. Water flows from the channel to the cells via 24-inch diameter pipes with equipped with one-way check valves. The site was formerly covered with a near monoculture of Phragmites which were sprayed with the herbicide Finale after they sprouted on the sideslopes after construction of the cells.   Plants used: Spartina alterniflora, Spartina patens, Panicum amarum, Iva

Sources: Innovative Treatment Technologies: Annual Status Report (EPA, Eighth Edition, Nov. 1996). Completed North American Innovative Remediation Technology Demonstration Projects (EPA, Aug.1996)