TABLE 3-4 COMPLETED PROJECTS: IN SITU BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT FOR SOIL, SEDIMENT, AND SLUDGE



Site Name/
Contact
Technology/
Vendor
Media Treated Contaminants Treated Operating Parameters Materials Handling Residuals Management Comments
Savannah River

DOE Program Manager
Kurt Gerdes
(301) 903-7289

Bioventing Soil & Ground water TCE and PCE. Soil:10 ppm, GW: 1 ppm
Disposal of solvents used to degrease nuclear fuel target elements.
  Levels attained < 2 ppb   Capital: $150K + 200 man-hours per week
Air Force Tech Demo - Program was launched in 5/92

Lt. Col. Ross N. Miller
(210) 536-4331

Bioventing initiative Soil Diesel, jet fuel, fuel oil, or petroleum hydrocarbons Aerobic degradation by direct injection or extraction of air Temporary shutdown of air injection in vent well to measure in situ rate of oxygen respiration in the monitoring wells. In situ technique for non- and semi-volatile hydrocarbons Degrada- tion up to 5,000 ppm/year. Apparatus is relatively non- intrusive.
Tyndall AFB, FL
Armstrong Laboratory /EQW
(904) 283-6208
DSN: 523-6208
Bioventing Soil Volatile hydrocarbons in vadose zone > 1,000 mg TPH/kg soil declined to < 30 mg TPH/kg soil In situ   In situ $15 -$20/m3 ($12 -$15/yd3
Site Name/
Contact
Technology/
Vendor
Media Treated Contaminants Treated Operating Parameters Materials Handling Residuals Management Comments
Eielson AFB, AK
Armstrong Laboratory /EQW
Kathy Vogel
Tyndall AFB, FL
(904) 283-6208 DSN: 523-6208
Bioventing Soil Volatile hydrocarbons In situ   In situ Average bioventing cost $10 -$15/yd3
Hill AFB, UT

AFCEE/Armstrong Laboratory /EQW Kathy Vogel (904)283-6208

Bioventing Soil to a depth of 60 ft. 25,000 gallons of JP-4. Starting levels at 20,000 ppm TPH. 98% reduction.

A pilot-scale demo is presently (1997) being performed to treat chlorinated solvents.

In situ   In situ Average bioventing cost $10-$15/yd3
Lowry AFB,

Lt.COL Tom Williams
3415 CES/DEV
Lowry AFB, CO 80230

Bioventing Soil Heating oil which contained relatively high concentration of TPH. In situ   In situ Capital: $28,500; Annual Operating: $32,875
Site Name/
Contact
Technology/
Vendor
Media Treated Contaminants Treated Operating Parameters Materials Handling Residuals Management Comments
DOI Tech Demo
(USGS) Galloway Township, NJ 1988

Herbert T. Buxton
(609) 771-3900

Vapor extraction and bioventing design Soil & ground water Gasoline AIRFLOW - an adaptation of the USGS ground water flow simulator MODFLOW to perform airflow simulations to predict well locations and pumping rates None Success dependent on ability to characterize air permeability.
EPA Remedial Action Seymour Recycling, IN

Summer 1990
8/86 to 10/86
1/87 to 2/87

Jeff Gore
(312) 886-6552

In situ soil bio- remediation/ ABB Environ- mental Services Soil (12 acres to 10 ft deep, about 43,500 yd3) 54 contaminants present, including TCE, TCA, and carbon tetrachloride. No standards or criteria for this OU in ROD Additives - nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur as fertilizer (200,000 gallons of nutrients added) Tilling Capping in place The soil became saturated quickly during this project, creating surface pools. The specially designed tractor got stuck.
EPA Removal Action Roseville Drums, CA

2/12/88 to 11/9/88

Brad Shipley
(415) 744-2287

In situ bio- remediation/ EPA removal contractor Soil (14 yd3) Input:

Dichloro- benzene - 4,000 ppm

Phenol - 12,000 ppm

Additives to soil: manure, water Tilling Output:

Dichloro- benzene -140 ppm

Phenol - 6 ppm

Midnight dump on dirt road.
Site Name/
Contact
Technology/
Vendor
Media Treated Contaminants Treated Operating Parameters Materials Handling Residuals Management Comments
EPA Removal Action Gila River Indian Reservation, AZ

6/24/85 to 10/23/85

Richard Martin
(414) 744-2288

In situ anaerobic biological treatment (preceded by chemical treatment) /EPA removal contractor Soil (3,220 yd3) Toxaphene

Input: 470 ppm

Output: 180 ppm

pH: 8.3 to 9.8 Additives to soil: sulfuric acid, manure, sludge Tilling Capped in place The biological treatment would have been more successful if the neutrali- zation after the chemical treatment had been more complete. Tearing of the plastic sheets covering the soils allowed air in and prevented anaerobic activity.
EPA Removal Action Gila River, Indian Reservation, AZ

3/28/85 to 6/24/85

Richard Martin (414) 744-2288

In situ chemical treatment (followed by anaerobic bio- remediation)/ EPA removal contractor Soil (3,200 yd3) Input:

Toxaphene - 1,470 ppm
Ethyl parathion - 86 ppm
Methyl parathion - 24 ppm

pH: 10.12 to 11.8 Moisture: wet additives to soil: sodium hydroxide, water Bio- remediation Output:

Toxaphene - 470 ppm
Ethyl parathion - 56 ppm
Methyl parathion - 3 ppm

Drum storage/disposal.
Navy Demo
Naval Communica- tion Station, Scotland

2/85 to 10/85

Deh Bin Chan
(805) 982-4191

Biodecontami- nation of fuel oil spills Soil Fuel Oil In situ; micro- organisms function best at 20-35 C In situ In situ Diesel fuel storage tanks and piping.
Site Name/
Contact
Technology/
Vendor
Media Treated Contaminants Treated Operating Parameters Materials Handling Residuals Management Comments
DOE
Savannah River Site, SC

Terry C. Hazen
(803) 725-5178

Biodegradation Soil & ground water TCE, PCE declined to < 2 ppb In situ Injection of 1- 4% methane/air into aquifer via horizontal wells In situ Inhibited by copper or high clay content.
Army Demo
U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory, IL

Jean Donnelly
(217) 352-6511

Biodegradation of oil contaminated soils Soil Motor oil/lubrication oil In situ Disk inoculant & nutrients into contaminated soil. Cover soil w/ventilated plastic sheeting. In situ Applicable to spills on air strips, roads, and parking lots.
Air Force Demo
Kelly AFB, TX & Eglin AFB, FL

Joe Laird
(402) 221-7772

In situ Biodegradation Soil & ground water Hydrocarbons -fuels, fuel oils, & non- halogenated solvents In situ soil conditioning and electron acceptor addition. Nutrients introduced into aquifer through irrigation wells Pumping wells remove excess fluids Site character- ization necessary to determine soil/chemical compatibility.
Site Name/
Contact
Technology/
Vendor
Media Treated Contaminants Treated Operating Parameters Materials Handling Residuals Management Comments
FAA Technical Center-Area D Atlantic County, NJ

Carla Struble
(212) 264-4595

Enhanced biodegradation Nutrient addition and ground water reinjection in saturated soil (sand) 33,000 yd3 Jet fuel NAPLs In situ   In situ Expected full scale $286K CAP and $200K O&M
Eglin AFB, FL

Alison Thomas (904) 283-6303

Enhanced anaerobic biodegradation Fuel con- taminated aquifer. 4,000 ppb BTEX       Using nitrate as an alternative electron acceptor
French Limited Superfund Site, Crosby, TX

Judith Black
Remedial Project Manager
U.S. EPA Region 6
(214)665-6937

Slurry-phase bioremediation 300,000 tons of soil and sludge PCBs (up to 616 mg/kg), volatile organics (up to 400 mg/kg), penta- chlorophenol (up to 750 mg/kg), semivolatiles (up to 5,000 mg/kg) and metals (up to 5,000 mg/kg). In situ   In situ Total cost of $49,000,000 of which $26,900,000 directly related to treatment, $16,500,000 for before- treatment, $5,600,000 for after- treatment.
Site Name/
Contact
Technology/
Vendor
Media Treated Contaminants Treated Operating Parameters Materials Handling Residuals Management Comments
Hill AFB, UT

AFCEE/ERT
Jerry Hansen
(210) 536-4353
Fax: (210) 536-4339

Natural Attenuation Soil          
Eglin AFB, FL

AFCEE/ERT
Jerry Hansen
(210) 536-4353
Fax: (210) 536-4339

Natural Attenuation Soil          
Elmendorf AFB, AL

AFCEE/ERT
Jerry Hansen
(210) 536-4353
Fax: (210) 536-4339

Natural Attenuation Soil          
Site Name/
Contact
Technology/
Vendor
Media Treated Contaminants Treated Operating Parameters Materials Handling Residuals Management Comments
DOE Demo
Savannah River Site, SC

Nate Ellis
(803) 952-4846
Brian Loony
(803) 752-5181

Vegetation enhanced biodegradation Soil TCE, PCE & PAHs at 10,000 ppb In situ Root- associated micro- organisms degrade contaminants. In situ Pine trees are most effective. Depth limited to about 20 ft. $50,000/ acre.
McCormick & Baxter SUPERFUND Site, Portland, OR (Wood treatment site)

Steve Rock (513) 569-7149

Phyto- remediation Shallow soil PCP and PAHs Perennial ryegrass Site seeded and irrigation system installed    
Argonne National Laboratory

M. Christina Negri, DOE, Office of Energy Research, (630) 252-9662

Phyto- remediation Soils Heavy metals       Project is also investigating the fate of chlorinated organic solvents in plant systems
Site Name/
Contact
Technology/
Vendor
Media Treated Contaminants Treated Operating Parameters Materials Handling Residuals Management Comments
Craney Island Fuel Terminal, U.S. Navy, Portsmouth, VA

Dr. Stephanie Fiorenza, DoD/AATDF (713) 527-8101 x3338

Phyto- remediation Soils (15 acres) TPH 1) bermuda grass sod over-seeded with rye grass, 2) white clover, 3) tall fescue The site is visited once per month during the growing season. Plots are weeded, mowed, and fertilized. Sampling is conducted monthly or bimonthly for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and nutrients in soil, above- and below- ground biomass development, and contaminants in soil pore water.    
EPA S.I.T.E. Program, Ogden, Utah

Steve Rock (513) 569-7149

Phyto- remediation; Chevron Research, Phytokinetics, Inc Soil and ground water Petroleum spill Poplar trees, juniper trees, alphalfa, and fescue Planted in three rows (six feet apart) perpendicular to ground water flow to form subsurface interceptor barrier to the saturated zone   Plants used: Alfalfa, Poplar Juniper, Fescue
Ohio (Former metal plating site)

Steve Rock (513) 569-7149

Phyto- remediation; Phytotech, Inc Soil Lead, chromium, and hexavalent chrome Indian mustard plants Two to three plantings per year are expected Plants will be harvested, then either disposed of or recycled for metals content