TABLE 3-7 COMPLETED PROJECTS: EX SITU BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT FOR SOIL, SEDIMENT, AND SLUDGE



Site Name/
Contact
Technology/
Vendor
Media Treated Contaminants Treated Operating Parameters Materials Handling Residuals Management Comments
Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center Twenty-Nine Palms, CA
R.L. Biggers
NFESC, (805) 982-2640
Biopile Soil Fuel from UST and spills - heap pile research project
702 ppm average TPH - beginning levels 234 ppm average-ending
Temperature, pressure, and moisture content are monitored. Excavation   $36/m3 ($27/yd3)
Mobil Terminal
Buffalo, NY

Robert Leary or Sal Calandra
(716)851-7220

Biopile Soil Gas, diesel, lead 11,500 m3; non-native organisms added      
Matagorda Island AF Range, TX

10/92 to 2/28/93

Vic Heister
(918) 669-7222

Ex situ bioremediation; solid phase. All constructed on abandoned runway. Bacteria added and mechanically mixed. Soil (500 yd3) PAHs
TPH - 3,400 ppm
BTEX - 41.3 ppm

Criteria:
Texas Water Commission standards 100 ppm for TPH 30 ppm for BTEX

Batch process retention time: 3 months

9-inch layers treated

Ambient temperature bacteria added to waste

Excavated approximately 40 by 60 ft area. Constructed on poly barrier and clean sand base. Did some mixing. Backfilled the soil into the excavation. Island is now a wildlife refuge; has an endangered species.
Site Name/Contact Technology/ Vendor Media Treated Contaminants Treated Operating Parameters Materials Handling Residuals Management Comments
Bioremediation Treatment Facility (BTF) at NAS North Island Biopile Soil Petroleum hydrocarbon       For a typical petroleum UST site that generates 1,000 tons of contaminated soil, treatment at the BTF will save about $30,000 as compared to thermal desorption or soil washing at local facilities and more than $100,000 as compared to disposal at an off-site Class II landfill.
Navy Marine Corps Mountain Warfare Center Bridgeport, CA

8/89 to 11/89

Diane Soderland
(907) 753-3425
Bill Major (DOD)
(805) 982-1808

Bioremediation (ex situ); heap pile bioreactor. Soil (7,000 yd3) PAHs (petroleum hydrocarbons, diesel), metals (lead) Temperature, pressure, and moisture content are monitored. Excavation After 20 months of operation, the TPH levels were 120 ppm

 

UMDA Hermiston, OR
USAEC (410)671-2054
Windrow Composting Soil Beginning level: 1,563 ppm TNT
953 ppm RDX
156 ppm HMX
Levels attained: 4 ppm TNT
2 ppm RDX
5 ppm HMX
      $210/metric ton ($190/ton) for large-scale (20,000 tons) cleanup
Site Name/Contact Technology/ Vendor Media Treated Contaminants Treated Operating Parameters Materials Handling Residuals Management Comments
LAAP Shreveport, LA
USAEC (410)671-2054
Mechanical in-vessel composting Soil Beginning level: 5,200 ppm TNT
500 ppm RDX Levels attained: 20 ppm TNT
20 ppm RDX
       
Cliff/Dow Disposal Site Marquet
Ken Glatz (312)886-1434
Composting Soil (7,000 m3) PAHs, As, Cu, Pb, Hg       Destroyed only the lower molecular weight PAHs; did not reach safety level desired
Army Demo
Louisiana Army Ammunition Plant, LA

12/87 to 4/88

Peter Marks
(610) 701-3039
Capt. Kevin Keehan
(410) 671-2054

Aerated static pile composting Lagoon sediments TNT, HMX, RDX Initial concentrations: 17000 mg/kg. Thermophilic (55 C) and mesophilic (35 C). Add bulking agents: horse manure, alfalfa, straw, fertilizer, horse feed Mixing Final concentrations:
meso=376 mg/kg, therm=74 mg/kg.
% reductions:
TNT=99.6/99.9
RDX=94.8/99.1
HMX=86.9/95.6

 

Site Name/Contact Technology/ Vendor Media Treated Contaminants Treated Operating Parameters Materials Handling Residuals Management Comments
Army Demo
Badger Army Ammunition Plant, WI

4/88 to 1/89

Peter Marks
(610) 701-3039
Capt. Kevin Keehan
(410) 671-2054

Aerated static pile composting Soil & sediments Nitrocellulose reduction > 99.5% Thermophilic (55 C) and mesophilic (35 C) Mixing Runoff collection from composting pads

 

Army Demo
Umatilla Depot Activity, OR

Harry Craig
(503) 326-3689

Aerobic composting optimization Soil & sediment (10,969 yd3) TNT, HMX, RDX, Tetryl. TNT and RDX soil concentrations ranged from 100 to 2000 ppm, HMX from 1 to 100 ppm. Maintain moisture content at 30-35%. Turning frequency was once every 24 hours for first 5 days, less frequent turning on subsequent days. Mix with bulking agents & organic amendments Runoff collection from composting pads Reduced the levels of target explosives to below the cleanup goals at: 190 ppm for TNT and 227 ppm for RDX. Total cost $346 per ton from mobilization to demobilization. Cost specific to biological treatment is $181 per cubic yard soil treated.
Dubose Oil Products Co. Superfund, Cantonment, FL.

Mark Fite
(404) 562-8927

Composting 19,705 tons of soil Contaminants concentrations: VOC ranged from 0.022 to 38.27 mg/kg;
Total PAH from 0.578 to 367 mg/kg;
PCP from 0.058 to 51 mg/kg.
Control of soil oxygen and moisture content, pH, and nutrients levels. Systems for aeration, inoculum growth and application Leachate collection, and wastewater treatment. Cleanup goal met for all constituents. Total PAH in treated soil ranging from 3.3 to 49.9. Unit cost directly attributed to treatment was $266/ton.
Site Name/Contact Technology/ Vendor Media Treated Contaminants Treated Operating Parameters Materials Handling Residuals Management Comments
Pilot-scale Demo; Letterkenny AD, Chambersburg, PA

Richard Scholze, USACERL, (217) 373-3488

Genetically Engineered Organisms
(White rot fungus)
PCP-treated ammunition boxes 425 ppm of PCBs;

30% removal but 80% removal in lab

      PCP-treated ammunition boxes in less than ideal conditions.
Brookhaven Wood Preserving, MS; 1993

Richard Lamar, USDA, (608) 231-9469; John Glasser EPA RREL (513) 569-7568

Genetically Engineered Organisms
(white rot fungus)
Soil (1/4 acre) PCP 700 ppm PCBs, PAHs; Attained 89% PCP removal, 70% PAH removal In situ Tilling and watering; No nutrients were added Air emmisions data showed no significant hazards due to soil tilling activities; Contaminated soil, underlying sand, and leachate had no significant contamination. Levels of PCP and the target PAHs found in the underlying sand layer and the leachate from each of the plots were insignificant, indicating low leachability and loss of these contaminants due to periodic irrigation of the soil and heavy rainfall; Levels of PCP, the target PAHs, and dioxins in the active air samples collected during the soil tilling events were insignificant, indicating a very low potential for airborne contaminant transport.
Site Name/Contact Technology/ Vendor Media Treated Contaminants Treated Operating Parameters Materials Handling Residuals Management Comments
Bioremediation of PAH
Contaminated Soils

Environmental Protection Service,
Environment Canada, Hull, Quebec (819) 953-0962

Genetically Engineered Organisms, Using White Rot Fungi

GEOBAC Technologies Group, Inc.

Soil Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons
(PAH)
       
EPA Remedial Action
Brown Wood Preserving, FL

10/88 to 12/91

Martha Berry
(404) 347-2643

Land treatment

Remediation Technologies, Seattle, WA

Soil/pond sediment (7,500 yd3) Criteria:
100 ppm total carcinogenic PAHs as sampled on 8 subplots on each lift

Input:
800 to 2,000 ppm total creosote contaminants

Output:
10 to 80 ppm total carcinogenic indicators

Retention time - 3 to 6 months

Additives - water and nutrients

Excavation Screening Tilling Treated material vegetated with grass (no cap) Further information on this project is available from the Remedial Action Close Out Report. The vendor, RETEC, is expected to prepare a paper.
Site Name/Contact Technology/ Vendor Media Treated Contaminants Treated Operating Parameters Materials Handling Residuals Management Comments
EPA Removal Action Poly-Carb, Inc., NV

7/22/87 to 8/16/88

Bob Mandel
(415) 744-2290

Land treatment and soil washing

EPA removal contractor

Soil (1,500 yd3) Input:
Phenol - 1,020 ppm
o-creosol - 100 ppm
m- and p-creosol - 409 ppm
Output:
Phenol - 1 ppm
o-creosol - 1 ppm
m- and p-creosol -0.92 ppm
Additives: water Excavation

Placement in double-lined pit

Irrigation

Tilling

Leachate collection and treatment with granular activated carbon This treatment used both bioremediation and soil flushing in one step.
EPA Removal Action
Scott Lumber, MO

8/87 to Fall 1991

Bruce Morrison
(913) 551-5014

Land treatment

RETEC Chapel Hill, NC

Soil (16,000 yd3) Criteria:

500 ppm - Total PAH

14 ppm -Benzo(a)pyrene

Additives:

Water Phosphates

Tilling Output:

160 ppm Total PAH

12 ppm Benzo(a)pyrene

Wood preserving site.
Lowry AFB, Denver, CO

Lt. Tom Williams,
3415 CES/DEV
Lowry AFB, CO 80230

Land Treatment

Engineering Science, Inc.
Denver, CO

Soil (5,400 yd3) BTEX < 100 mg/kg, Total Recoverable Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TRPH) upto 11,000 mg/kg; 3,100 mg/kg average. Soil spread on plastic sheeting to thickness of 14 to 18 inches; One time ammonium nitrate nutrients (C:N:P ration of 200:10:1); Soil aerated twice a month; Soil moisture content 10% - 15%. Ex situ   Total capital cost - $104,257; Estimated annual operating cost - $18,460.
Site Name/Contact Technology/ Vendor Media Treated Contaminants Treated Operating Parameters Materials Handling Residuals Management Comments
Army
Ft. Ord Marina, Fritzche AAF Fire Drill Area, CA

Winter 1991

Gail Youngblood
(408) 242-8017

Land treatment Soil (4,000 yd3) TCE, MEK, TPH, BTEX Initial concentration >1,000 ppm

End concentration <200 ppm

Ex situ None USACE/DOD-financed Installation Restoration Program.
Navy Demo
Camp Pendleton, CA

1991

William Sancet
(619) 725-3868

Land treatment: Enzyme catalyzed, accelerated biodegradation Soil TPH reduced from 29,000 ppm to 88 ppm (well below 100 ppm goal) 50 yd3/month capacity Soil tilled with a garden tractor after each product application and once each week No residual waste produced. No future maintenance required $351/cubic yard.
Petroleum Products Terminal

Al Leuscher
Remediation Technologies, Concord, MA

Landfarming Soil TPH 1,000 ppm

Level attained: 100 ppm

      Soils segregated by contamination type- treated for 3 years (seasonal operation)
Site Name/Contact Technology/ Vendor Media Treated Contaminants Treated Operating Parameters Materials Handling Residuals Management Comments
Fuel Oil Spill

Foster Wheeler
Joe Matthewson
Santa Fe Springs,CA

Landfarming Soil TPH 6,000 ppm

Level attained: 100 ppm

      Heavy clays required addition of soil amendments 120 treatment days
Creosote

John Matthews EPA RSKERL (405)436-8600

Landfarming Soil Pyrene 135 ppm
PCP 132 ppm
Levels attained:
< 7.3 ppm
87 ppm
      NPL - Ongoing seasonal operation
Pesticide Storage Facility Landfarming Soil Pesticide 86 ppm. Level attained 5 ppm       12-inch clay liner with drainage employed - 5 months' treatment
Site Name/Contact Technology/ Vendor Media Treated Contaminants Treated Operating Parameters Materials Handling Residuals Management Comments
Army Demo
Joliet Army Ammunition Plant, IL

1992

Kevin Keehan
(410) 671-2054

Slurry phase biological treatment: Soil slurry-sequencing batch bioreactor Soil TNT, RDX, HMX

TNT reduced from 1,300 to 10 ppm

In tank or reactor Excavation and pre-screening (to remove large debris) Slurry removed & dewatered; process water recycled Best suited for small sites where incineration is cost-prohibitive.
Navy Demo
Naval Weapons Station unleaded gasoline spill
Seal Beach, CA

Steve McDonald
(310) 594-7273
Carmen Lebron
(805)982-1615

Slurry phase biological treatment: unleaded gasoline spill Soil & ground water Aromatic hydrocarbons: 1 ppb to 4 ppm of BTEX Three 80-litre bioreactors at 72 L/day Site soil placed in reactor - ground water pumped through Effluent cleaned to drinking water standards for BTEX

 

Site Name/Contact Technology/ Vendor Media Treated Contaminants Treated Operating Parameters Materials Handling Residuals Management Comments
EPA SITE Demo
EPA Test & Evaluation Facility, OH

5/91 to 9/91

Ronald Lewis
(513) 569-7856

Slurry phase biological treatment: Bioslurry reactor Soils, sediments, & sludge 97% reduction in PAHs Degradation enhanced by control of pH, temperature, oxygen, nutrients, and enriched indigenous microorganisms Excavation, mixing, additives, sparging

 

Can be used for creosote and petroleum wastes.
EPA SITE Demo

Ronald Lewis
(513) 569-7856
Merv Cooper
(206) 624-9349

Liquids & solids biological treatment (LST) Soils, sediments, & sludge Biodegradable organics Suspended solids up to 20% Mixing & aeration Managed by carbon adsorption & biofiltration Mobile LST pilot system.

Sources: Innovative Treatment Technologies: Annual Status Report (EPA, Eighth Edition, Nov. 1996). Completed North American Innovative Remediation Technology Demonstration Projects (EPA, Aug.1996)