DOE Fernald Facility, OH 


Alan B. Cash 619-552-9902 

Solvent extraction

Terra Kleen San Diego, CA

Soil PCBs   Ex Situ   Solvent Extraction [An EPA SITE Program document will be produced.] 
EPA Removal Action
Traband Warehouse PCBs, OK

2/90 to 9/90

Pat Hammack
(214) 655-2270

Solvent extraction

Terra-Clean, Inc.

Solids PCBs Initial: 7,500 ppm Solvent addition Excavation Treated solid; concentrated contaminant Storage management complex.
LLNL, Livermore, CA 


John Bowers 
Chemical Oxidation

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Livermore

Soil Low-Level Mixed Wastes, Solvents        Fiscal Year 1997 Demonstration of Omnivorous Non-Thermal Mixed Waste Treatment: Direct Chemical Oxidation of Organic Solids and Liquids Using Peroxydisulfate UCRL-ID-129826 
EPA Removal Action Stanford Pesticide Site No. 1, AZ

3/20/87 to 11/4/87

Dan Shane
(415) 744-2286

Chemical treatment -alkaline hydrolysis

EPA removal contractor

Soil (200 yd3) Methyl parathion

Input: 24.2 ppm

Output: 0.05 ppm

pH: 9.0
Moisture: wet Additives to soil: soda ash, water, activated carbon

(in situ, 3 times per week)

Treated soil Pesticide manufacturing use/storage. Farm equipment storage.
EPA Remedial Action Palmetto Wood Preserving, SC

9/28/88 to 2/8/89

McKenzie Mallary (404) 347-7791

Chemical treatment and soil washing; reduction of hexavalent chromium to trivalent chromium

En-site (ERCS contractor) Atlanta, GA

Soil (13,000 yd3) Input:
Arsenic - 2 to 6,200 ppm
Chromium - 4 to 6,200 ppm
Arsenic - less than 1 ppm
Chromium - 627 ppm
Soil - Batch process

Treatment for aqueous waste from soil washing - 25 gpm

pH - 2 to 9

(1) Used sodium meta- phosphate to lower pH to 2.0 and wash the chromium from the soil, (2) separated the soil and solution, (3) solidified the soils, and (4) used the ferrous ion method of reduction to precipitate the chromium from solution in trivalent form Soil - solidified and replaced on-site

Wastewater -permitted discharge to the sewer line

Sludge - off-site disposal

This treatment system is unique in the method of generating ferrous ion for the reducing step. The wastestream passed through an electrolytic cell containing consumable steel electrodes where the ferrous ions were electrically introduced into the wastestream.
EPA Removal Action
PBM Enterprises, MI

3/25/85 to 10/28/85

Ross Powers
(312) 378-7661

Chemical Treatment: Neutralization with hypochlorite process

Mid- American Environ- mental Service Riverdale, IL

Film chips (464 tons or 1,280 yd3) Cyanide

Input: 200 ppm

Output: 20 ppm

Time: 2 to 3 hours

Additives: sodium hydroxide

Agitation Rinse water, runoff, and waste hypochlorite - treated off-site

Treated chips - landfilled (Subtitle D)

Silver recovery facility.
EPA Removal Action Zhiegner Refining Company

2/93 to 6/93

Dilshad Perera
(908) 321-4356

Chemical treatment


Solid (100 lb) Mercury initial concentration >10% mercury

Final concentration of mercury in recyclable precipitate was >80%.

Less than 260 ppm if mercury in tank nonrecycled salt.

Added salt to precipitate the mercury Mercury pretreatment precipitated mercury salts into mercury sulfide so that the mercury can be recovered and recycled Residual salts containing less than 260 ppm mercury were incinerated off-site. Precious metal recovery site.
EPA Demo
Midwest, California, Australia


S. Jackson Hubbard (513) 569-7507

SAREX chemical fixation process Soil & sludge Low level metals & organics Catalyzed by lime and proprietary reagents Blending with reagent, mixing, heating, curing Vapors are scrubbed and processed before release Water content is not an obstacle although it may cause steaming.
EPA Demo
Grand Calumet River Site, IL


Mark Meckes
(513) 569-7348

BESTTM solvent extraction process Oily sludges & soil PCBs, PAHs, pesticides pH >10 Hydrophobic and hydrophilic cycles by controlling temperature Separation into oil, water, and clean solids Solvent flammable -must be sealed from air.
EPA SITE Demo, Research Facility, Edison, NJ, 1992

Laurel Staley, USEPA, (513) 569-7863;

Theodore Trowbridge, Dehydr-Tech Corporation
(210) 887-2182

Chemical Extraction; Carver- Greenfield Process(R) for Solvent Extraction of wet, oily wastes;

Dehydro- Tech Corporation

Sludge Spent petroleum drilling fluids   Waste is first mixed with a low cost hydro- carbon solvent. Solids are centrifuged away from the solvent, followed by "desol- ventizing," an operation that evaporates residual solvent. The resulting water product required treatment due to the presence of small amounts of light organics and solvent. Normally, the resulting water product may be disposed of at a local publicly owned treatment works.
United Creosoting, Conroe, TX

Mark Meckes, USEPA, (513) 569-7348; Chris Shallice, CF Systems Corporation/

Morrison Knudsen, (216) 523-6581

Chemical Extraction;

CF Systems Corporation/ Morrison Knudsen liquified gas solvent extraction (LG-SX) technology

Soil (80,000 yd3) Oil, grease, and PAHs   Uses liquefied gas (such as propane) solvent    
DOE pilot-scale test, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

Robert Montgomery, EG&G Idaho, (208) 525-3937

Chemical Extraction (Separation / Chemical Extraction) Soil Radionuclides, metals Approxia- mtely 30% of soil matrix was co-dissolved in order to achieve release of most of the cesium-137. Soils are screened, classified, and placed into leaching unit with hot nitric acid. Disposal options include solidification, calcining leachate, and storage Test results indicated excellent removal efficiencies for cobalt-60 and chromium
SUPERFUND Remedial Action, Arrowhead Refinery Co., 1994 & 1995

Edwin Smith, USEPA, (312) 353-6571

Chemical Extraction (Solvent extraction) Soil 7,000 yd3 Halogenated volatiles, PCBs, PAHs, solvents, heavy metals (lead)        
Marengo, OH 


Carl Magnell 614-297-0365 


Solvated Electron Technology (SET™) 

Commodore Environmental Columbus, OH

Soil PCBs    Ex Situ   Solvated Electron Treatment of Chlorinated Organics [An EPA SITE Program document will be produced.] 
EPA SITE Demo: Naval Air Station North Island Site 4, San Diego, CA, May to June 1994

Mark Meckes, EPA, National Risk Management Research, (513) 569-7348

Chemical Extraction

Terra-Kleen Response Group, Inc

Soil PCBs, chlorinated pesticides, PAHs, penta- chlorophenol, cresote, poly- chlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins (PCDD), polychlorinated dibenzofurans PCB Aroclor 1260 concen- trations were reduced from a maximum of 170 milli-grams per kilogram (mg/kg) in untreated soil to less than 2 mg/kg in treated soil. The average removal efficiency was 98.39 percent. Uses amines (usually triethyl amine).    
EPA Removal Action
General Refining Company, GA

8/86 to 10/86 and 1/87 to 2/87

Shane Hitchcock
(404) 347-3136

Solvent extraction/ Resource Conservation Technology Company Bellevue, WA Sludge (3,448 tons) Input:

PCB - 5.0 ppm

Lead - 10,000 ppm


PCB - insignificant

Lead - concentrated in solids

Continuous operation

Time: 2 hours
pH: 10
Temp: 20 °C
Rate: 27 tons/day Moisture content: 60%


Sodium hydroxide Triethy- lamine

Excavation Screening Neutrali- zation Size Reduction Mixing Oil - used as fuel for kiln

Water - treated, discharged off-site

Solids - solidified and disposed of on-site

The oil recovered from the extractions process could not be sold because of an elevated metals content. The solvent could not be recovered because of leaks in system seals. The unit required a relatively uniform material so materials handling of the sludges proved difficult in the beginning of the project. The lead-bearing solids produced by the dryer also required special handling. Finally, deterrents in the sludge hindered oil/water separation.
EPA Removal Action Vineland Chemical Company, NJ


Don Graham
(908) 321-4345

Chemical treatment


Solid (100 lb) Mercury initial concentration >10% mercury

Final concentration of mercury in recyclable precipitate was >80%.

Less than 260 ppm of mercury in nonrecycled salt.

Added salt to precipitate the mercury Mercury pretreatment precipitated mercury salts into mercury sulfide so that the mercury can be recovered and recycled Residual salts containing less than 260 ppm mercury were incinerated off-site First known Superfund site where this process has been applied.
EPA Removal Action
Avtex Fibers, VA

4/90 to 8/91

Vincent Zenone
(215) 597-3038

Chemical treatment (oxidation using NaClO)

OH Materials, Findlay, OH (ERCS contractor)

Sludge/ water from storage unit (2 million gallons) Carbon disulfide

Criteria: =< 10 ppm -carbon disulfide in the effluent

Input: 50 to 200,000 ppm carbon disulfide

Output: =< 10 ppm -carbon disulfide

Batch operation average retention time - 1 hour pH - 10

Additives: sodium hypochloride

The retention time and reagent feed rates increased with increasing concen- tration of sludge in the contaminated water.

Pumping Salts from the reaction were removed with flocculation and clarification at existing treatment plant, pH adjustment Carbon disulfide is unstable and will be found with other contaminants in aqueous wastestream.

For additional information on this project, see the Removal Close Out Report available from EPA Region III or OH Materials.

EPA & Navy Demo EPA Lab, NJ

Deh Bin Chan
(805) 982-4191

Chemical detoxification of chlorinated aromatic compounds Soil Dioxin, herbicides, chlorinated aromatic compounds. 99.9% decontami- nation achieved Soil heated to 100-150 °C if dehydrated Excavation, Water content assessed. Products are not toxic nor biodegradable Incineration cheaper in some cases.
EPA Demo
Douglassville, PA


Paul R. DePercin
(513) 569-7797

Chemical treatment & immobi- lization Soil, sediments, & sludge Organic compounds, heavy metals, oil, & grease In/ex situ. Sediments - underwater. Batch process at 120 tons/hour. Blending Hardened concrete- like mass Application Analysis Report, EPA/540/A5- 89/001; Technology Evaluation Report, EPA/540/5- 89/00/a
EPA Demo


Michelle Simon
(513) 569-7469

RENEUTM extraction technology Soil Organics up to 325,000 ppm Operated under vacuum - 5-45 tons/hour Sand, clay, and soil up to 3 in. diameter Clean soil backfilled Proprietary, azeotropic fluid to extract contaminant from soil.
Star Enterprise, Port Arthur, TX, March 1991 to March 1992

Mark Meckes, USEPA, (513) 569-7348; Chris Shallice, CF Systems Corporation

Morrison Knudsen, (216) 523-6581

Chemical Extraction; CF Systems Corporation

Morrison Knudsen liquified gas solvent extraction (LG-SX) technology

Sludge K- and F- wastes, PCBs   Uses liquefied gas (such as propane) solvent Following heavy metals fixation, the treated solids were disposed of in a Class I landfill  
EPA Demo
New Bedford Harbor, MA & O'Connor Site, ME

3/91 to 3/92

Laurel Staley
(513) 569-7863

Solvent extraction Soil, sludge, and waste water PCB 300-2,500 ppm 90-98% removal Phase separation with solvent, solvent recovery Tray tower for water; extractor/ decantors for solids and semi-solids Heavy metal fixation, then Class I landfill Applicable to VOCs, SVOCs, PAHs, PCBs, PCP, and dioxins.
EPA Demo
Coleman-Evans Site, FL

Norma Lewis
(513) 569-7665

Catalytic ozone oxidation with soil washing Soil, sludge, & ground water Organics - up to 20,000 ppm Soil washing enhanced by ultrasound Soil particles greater than 1 inch are crushed Oxidation of wastewater, carbon for off-gas Excalibur Technology.

$92 to $170/m3
($70- $130/yd3)

EPA Remedial Action
Wide Beach Development, NY

9/90 to 9/91

Herb King
(212) 264-1129

Dehaloge- nation/ APEG dechlorination

Soil Tech Denver, CO

Soil (40,000 yd3) Criteria:
PCBs (Aroclor 1254)- <10 ppm (1 composite sample/day)
10 to 120 ppm PCB

< 2 ppm PCB

Continuous process

8 tons/hour 200 to 580 °C (450 to 1,100 °F) Ambient pH and moisture

Additives - Alkaline polyethylene glycol (APEG)

Excavation Screening Staging Treated soil -disposed of on-site If on-site disposal is planned, perform tests of the treated material appropriate to intended use.

For further information on this dechlorination project, see the Demonstration Test Report produced by EPA, Region II.

PWC Guam

Jess Lizama

Dehalogenation Soil 2,500 ppm PCB average
Levels attained: <10 ppm
Montana Pole
Butte, MT
Dehalo- genation Soil Dioxin, Furans/Oil <84 ppm
Attained: <1 ppb
Economy Products Omaha, NE Dehalo- genation Soil TCDD, 2, 4-D,
2, 4, 5-T (liquid) Beginning levels: 1.3 ppm
17,800 ppm
2,800 ppm
Levels attained: Non-detect
334 ppm
55 ppm
EPA Removal Action
Signo Trading International, Inc., NY

10/20/87 to 10/21/87

Charles Fitzsimmons
(201) 321-6608

KPEG dechlorination

Galson Remediation, Syracuse, NY

Sludge (15 gallons) Dioxin

Input: 135 ppm

Output: 1 ppb

Temperature: 150 °C

Time: Overnight

Excavation Incineration of residuals (without dioxin contami- nation) at treatment, storage, and disposal facility Waste management facility warehouse.
Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)

Coyne Prenger

Magnetic Separation Soil          
DOE Demo


Robert Montgomery
(208) 525-3937

Physical separation/ chemical extraction Sediments Radionuclides & metals Contami- nants removed from leachate by ion exchange, reverse osmosis, precipitation, or evaporation Screening, segregation, leaching with hot nitric acid Solidification, calcining leachate, or storage Difficulty removing Cesium-137.
Cost: $1,000/yd3
EPA Demo
Iron Mountain Mine Site, CA

1990 to 1991

S. Jackson Hubbard (513) 569-7507

Separation: Precipitation, microfiltration & sludge dewatering Sludge & leachable soil Heavy metals, non-volatile organics & solvents, oil, grease, pesticides, bacteria, solids Up to 5% solids, 30 lb/hour of solids, 10 gpm of wastewater Heavy metal precipi- tation, filtration, concentrated stream dewatering Filter cakes 40-60% solids, water recycled EXXFLOW and EXXPRESS fabric microfilter and filter press.
Hunter's Point Shipyard, San Francisco, CA 


Rob Stephenson 604-273-0311 

Soil Washing

ChemTech Analysis, Inc. Klohn-Crippen Consultants Ltd. Richmond, BC, Canada

Soil Cu, Cr, Pb, Z    Ex situ   “Soil Washing System Employs Aggressive Conditions to Handle Organics. Inorganics,” HazTech News, 13:6, 9 Apr 1998 
DOE Mound Facility, Miamisburg, OH 


Michael Dunn 

Soil Washing

Selective Environmental Technologies, Inc. (Selentec) Atlanta, GA Michael Dunn 

Soil Pu, Thorium    Ex situ   “Mound Pilots Process That Washes Soil Clean,” New Directions, Jun/Jul 1997 (p 1 & 6) 
Ft. Polk, LA

US Army Environmental Center
Lisa Miller
(800) USA-EVHL

Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center
Barbara Nelson

Soil Washing featuring physical separation and acid leaching for the recovery and recycle of lead from small arm range soil. Soil Lead: 3500 mg/kg After treatment:
200 mg/kg total lead
2 mg/L TCLP
    $170 per ton for 10,000 ton site
Twin Cities AAP
New Brighton, MN

Michael D. Royer
(908) 321-6633

Soil Washing featuring gravity separation, particle size classification, metal leaching, and lead recovery Soil Targets for background remediation: Cr, Cu, Hg, and Ni. Some batches reached state remediation goals.        
EPA Demo
Santa Maria, CA


Annette Gatchett
(513) 569-7697

Biogenesis soil washing process Soil Organics - oil, fuel, PCBs, PAHs 99% hydrocarbon removal with initial concentration up to 15,000 ppm 30-65 tons/hour Agitated in unit with surfactant Washwater - oil/water separator, filter, and bioreactor Self-contained mobile soil washing unit.
Army Saginaw Bay Confined Disposal Facility, MI

10/91 to 6/4/92

Jim Galloway
(313) 226-6760

Soil washing; water with flocculent and surfactant as an additive

Bermann USA, Stafford Springs, CT

Sediment (150 yd3) PCBs 30 yd3 of sediment treated per day Dredging
Size reduction
Residuals were left at the facility Wastewater discharged to confined disposal facility Forced cold-weather shutdown is a limitation.
DOE Demo
Clemson Technical Center, SC

Doug Mackensie

(208) 526-6265

Enhanced Soil Washing with Soil*EXSM Soil & debris Heavy metals, radionuclides, and organics Particles smaller than 2 inches Screening, dissolution, surfactant addition Clean soil & debris, recycle water, off-gas from organics & concentrated contami- nants Selective extraction/ dissolution.
EPA & DOE Demo Montclair, West Orange & Glen Ridge Sites, NJ

Mike Eagle
(202) 233-9376

Soil washer for radioactive soil Soils Radionuclides - 56% volume reduction 40 pCu/g to 11 pCu/g 1 ton/hour Attrition mills and hydro- classifiers Filter press and off-site disposal Plant is being optimized for further demonstration.
EPA Demo
Toronto Port Industrial District, Canada


Teri Richardson
(513) 569-7949

Soil washing/ Soil recycling Soils Organics and Inorganics Inorganics extracted; organics extracted and biodegraded. Soil washing, metal dissolution, chemical hydrolysis with biodegra- dation Metals recovered in pure form.
Reusable fill
90% reduction in PAHs.
Army Demo
Sacramento Army Depot, CA


Marlin Mezquita
(415) 744-2393

Soil washing Oxidation lagoon soils (12,000 yd3) Cd, Ni, Pb, Cu Soil treated with wash reagent to extract contaminants Wash liquid neutralized with caustic to precipitate metals Precipitated metals landfilled Contaminated to depth of 18 inches.
DOE Demo
Fernald Site, OH

Kimberly Nonfer
(513) 648-6556

Soil washing Soil Uranium Soil and leachant attrition scrubbed for 1 minute to solubilize uranium Attrition scrubbing, gravity separation, screening Wastewater treatment required Commercially available.
EPA Demo
Alaska Battery Enterprises Superfund Site, AK


Hugh Masters
(908) 321-6678

Soil washing plant Soil Heavy metals, radionuclides Rate dependent on percentage of soil fines - up to 20 tons/hour Deagglo- meration, density separation, and material sizing Concentrated contaminant con- tainerized, liquid recirculated clean soil Process modified to accommodate unexpectedly high levels of lead and battery casings.
EPA Demo
MacGillis & Gibbs Superfund Site, MN


Mary Stinson
(908) 321-6683

Soil washing system (volume reduction), process water treated in a bio-reactor, fines treated in a slurry bioreactor. Soil Removal:

89% PCP
88% PAHs

500 lb/hour
24 hour/day
Debris prescreening, soil mixed with water, separation (operations similar to mineral processing operations) Wastewater treated in fixed film bioreactor Patented water based volume reduction process.
EPA Demo
Pensacola, FL


Teri Richardson
(513) 569-7949

Soil washing: Volume reduction unit Soils Organics - creosote, PCP, pesticides, PAHs, VOCs, SVOCs, metals Up to 100 lb/hour Particle separation and solubilization Concentrated contaminant Pilot-scale mobile soil washing unit.
Toronto Port Industrial Dist.
Ontario, Canada

Dennis Lang
(416) 863-2047

Soil washing (volume reduction), metal dissolution, and chemical hydrolysis with biodegradation (organics) Soil 52 ppm Naphthalene;
10 ppm benzo(a)-pyrene Levels attained: <5ppm; 2.6ppm
Escambia Wood Treating Company Superfund Site, Pensacola, FL

Terri Richardson

Soil Washing featuring particle size classification and surfactant addition Soil From 550-1,700 ppm PAHs
48-210 ppm PCP to 45 ppm PAHs
3 ppm PCPs
      $151/metric ton ($137/ton) (projected)
Installation Restoration (IR) Site 4, NAS Northern Island, San Diego, CA Terra-Kleen Soil Washing combined with SVE Soil Reduced PCB levels in soil from 144 mg/kg to 1.7 mg/kg on average       $500,000 for the field-scale treatability demonstration .
Escambia Wood Treating Company Superfund Site, Pensacola, FL

Terri Richardson

Soil Washing featuring particle size classification and surfactant addition Soil From 550-1,700 ppm PAHs
48-210 ppm PCP to 45 ppm PAHs
3 ppm PCPs
      $151/metric ton ($137/ton) (projected)
EPA Remedial Action
Upjohn Manufacturing Company, PR

1/83 to 3/88

Alison Hess
(212) 264-6040


Terra Vac, Inc., Costa Mesa, CA

Soil Criteria:

Initial concentrations - 70 ppm (carbon tetrachloride to air)

Final concentrations - nondetect (<0.002 ppm)

Ambient conditions Ex situ Discharge of soil vapors through 30-ft stack For further information on this application, see the Applications Analysis Report for the Terra Vac In Situ Vacuum Extraction System (EPA/540/A5- 89/003).
EPA Removal Action
Basket Creek Surface Impoundment, GA

11/92 to 2/93

Don Rigger
(404) 347-3931

Vacuum extraction of soil pile with horizontal wells (ex situ)

OHMaterials, Inc.

Soil (2,000 yd3) VOCs
TCE, PCE, MEK, MIBK, BTEX High 33% VOCs Average 1 to 5%

TCE - 0.5 mg/L TCLP

PCE - 0.7 mg/L TCLP
All VOCs met TCLP limits

Vacuum pressure monitored. 1,300-CFM/ manifold. 3 manifolds 6 to 7 wells/ manifolds Surface impoundment used for disposal of waste solvents. Built an enclosure over the site. Excavated the soil and screened it with a power screen. Stacked on PVC extraction wells. Recovered VOCs with duct work and fan. Vapors incinerated. Residual soils and rejects from screening met TCLP limits and were disposed of as nonhazardous in RCRA Subtitle D landfill. Incinerated 70,000 lb of VOCs. $2M total costs. Permeability in situ soil was not good at first. Excavation and ex situ treatment improved permeability. Shouldn't rule out if can't be done in situ.
Installation Restoration (IR) Site 11, NAS Northern Island, San Diego, CA Terra Vac pilot  SVE/ Air Sparging/ Catalytic Oxidation System Soil Up to 250 pounds (33 gallons) per day of VOCs was effectively removed from the vadose zone  and subsequently destroyed.        
DOE Demo
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA


Jesse L. Yow, Jr.
(510) 422-3521

Solar Detoxification Ground water VOCs Exposed to sunlight & nontoxic catalyst (TiO2) Pumping, solar detox, pH adjustment, catalyst addition Catalyst filtered out and water sent for secondary treatment Salts in ground water reduce efficiency.
Tyndall Air Force Base Solar Detoxification Ground water Jet fuel Exposed to sunlight & nontoxic catalyst (TiO2) Pumping, solar detox, pH adjustment, catalyst addition Catalyst filtered out and water sent for secondary treatment Salts in ground water reduce efficiency.
Savannah River Site Incinerator, Aiken, SC 


D. Singh 

Solidification/ stabilization

Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, IL

Soil, Radioactive Ash    Ex situ   Phosphate Bonded Solidification of Radioactive Incinerator Wastes WSRC-MS-99-00314 
Midvale Slag Superfund Site, Midvale, UT 


Robert Kuhn 914-623-2333 

Solidification/ stabilization

Solucorp Saddle Brook,

Soil, As, Cd, Pb    Ex situ   Molecular Bonding System®, Solucorp Industries Ltd. EPA 540-R-97-507 
ORNL, Oak Ridge, TN 


Catherine Mattus 423-574-6793 


Solidification/ stabilization

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Soil, Mixed Wastes: Cd, Pb, Radionulides    Ex situ   Demonstration of Mixed Waste Debris Macroencap-sulation Using Sulfur Polymer Cement [fact sheet] 
Rocky Mountain Arsenal 


Richard W. McManus 214-393-6965 

Solidification/ stabilization

SOUND/epic Anchorage, AK

Soil, Na, Cu, K, Nitrate, Pesticides    Ex situ   Dispersion by Chemical Reaction Testing of Rocky Mountain Arsenal Basin F Waste Soils CRREL Special Report 97-3 
Robins AFB, Macon, GA


Terry Lyons
(513) 569-7589

Solidification/ stabilization Soil, sludge, liquid Organics and inorganics Uses proprietary bonding agents Large debris must be prescreened Non-leaching high-strength monolith Process can be applied in situ.
Selma Pressure Treating Selma, CA


Edward Bates
(513) 569-7774

Solidification/ stabilization with silicate compounds Ground water, soil, sludge Organics and inorganics Silicate compounds Pretreatment separation of coarse and fine materials PCP leachate concen- trations reduced up to 96%. As, Cr, and Cu immobilized. Applied to a wide variety of hazardous soils, sludges, and wastewaters.
Portable Equip. Salvage Co. Clackamas, OR


Edwin Barth
(513) 569-7669

Chemfix process - solidification/ stabilization Soil & Sludge Solid waste Uses soluble silicates and silicate- settling agents Blend waste with dry alumina, calcium, and silica-based reagents Produces friable solids. Cu and Pb TCLP extracts were reduced 94-99% Applicable to electroplating wastes, electric arc furnace dust.
Navy Demo
Naval Const. Battalion Ctr. Port Hueneme, CA

2/91 to 2/92

Jeff Heath
(805) 982-1657

Solidification of Spent blasting Blasting wastes containing abrasives, grit, sands Lead, copper, and heavy metals About 2 months required for design Mixing of asphalt and other aggregates <1% inert debris (wood and metal scrap) is produced Estimated cost: $85/ton of waste.
Imperial Oil Co./ Champion Chemical Co. Superfund Site Morganville, NJ


S. Jackson Hubbard
(513) 569-7507

Soliditech solidification/ stabilization process Soil, sludge Inorganics and organics, metals, ore, grease Add water, Urrichem (proprietary additives), and pozzolanic material (fly ash or kiln dust) Screen waste and introduce into batch mixer Heavy metals in untreated waste were immobilized. VOCs not detected in treated waste. pH of untreated waste was 3.4 to 7.9. Treated waste had pH 11.7 to 12.
Small Arms Range, Naval Air Station Mayport, FL


Barbara Nelson
(805) 982-1668

Stabilization of small arms range Soil Lead and other heavy metals Soil is mixed with sodium silicate, portland cement, and water Screen soil to remove bullets (to be recycled) and other debris (landfill) TCLP reduced from 720 to 0.9 ppm Pb, 7 to 0.2 ppm Cu, 4.1 to 0.2 ppm Zn Treated soil is returned to its original location. Estimated cost $490/ton.
DOI Demo
Salt Lake City Research Center

K.S. Gritton
(801) 584-4170

Vitrification: Treatment of copper industry waste Slags, dusts, sludges, liquids Copper byproducts - arsenic, heavy metals Acid in refinery waste is used to solubilize metals in flue dust, with subsequent metal recovery Ex situ Vitrification of arsenic sulfide leaves a dense, non-reactive, glass-like material Emphasis is on recovery of metals, which are presently discarded.
DOI Demo
Albany Metallurgy Research Center, OR Paul C. Turner
(503) 967-5863
Vitrification furnace Solids Residues from Incineration of municipal waste Electric arc furnace with water-cooled roof & sidewalls Dedicated feeder and off-gas treatment. Glassy slag and metallic phase Slag is 3 times more dense; metallic phase is 10 times more dense.
EPA & DOE Demo Component Development & Integration Facility, MT


Laurel Staley
(513) 569-7863
R.C. Eschenback
(707) 462-6522

Plasma ARC vitrification Soils & sludge Organics & metals 2,800-3,000 °F in plasma centrifugal furnace Fed into sealed centrifuge & heated to 1,800 °F. Organics are evaporated. Organic laden vapor stream and metals laden vitrified mass. $750- $1,900/ton.
Davis-Monthan AFB.

Brad Jones
(402) 221-4488

solidification/ stabilization Dross and dross contaminated soil Cd, Cr, and Pb Dross and dross contaminated soil was mixed with 10% cement and 5% lime in pug mill.   Passed TCLP for all contaminants. Cost: $100 per cubic yard.
Installation Restoration (IR) Site 2, NAS Northern Island, San Diego, CA Western Product Recovery Group's (WPRG) Chemical Coordinate Bonding and Adsorption (CCBA) technology Soil Up to 250 pounds (33 gallons) per day of VOCs was effectively removed from the vadose zone  and subsequently destroyed. Contaminated soil is heated to a high temperature and mixed with clay. The clay's silicon matrix reacts with the metals to form metal silicates, which chemically fix the metals to the final treatment product.   Treated soil can be reused as on-site backfill or recycled as landscaping material, road base material, or aggregate for concrete material.  

Sources: Innovative Treatment Technologies: Annual Status Report ( Eighth and Tenth Editions, Nov. 1996 and Feb. 2001). Innovative Remediation Technologies: Field-Scale Demonstration Projects in North America (1st and 2nd Editions, Aug 1996 and Jun 2000).