TABLE 3-9 COMPLETED PROJECTS: EX SITU THERMAL TREATMENT FOR SOIL, SEDIMENT, AND SLUDGE



Site Name/
Contact
Technology/
Vendor
Media Treated Contaminants Treated Operating Parameters Materials Handling Residuals Management Comments
EPA Demo
Hamilton Harbor, Canada

1992

Gordon Evans
(513) 569-7684

Thermal gas phase reduction Soil, sludge, liquids, & gases Hydrocarbons PCBs, PAHs, chlorophenols, pesticides 850 C or higher - 25 tons/day Reduction of hydrocarbons in presence of hydrogen Offgas stream Mobile reactor.
HWAAP
Hawthorne, NV

Louis Kanaras, USAEC
(410) 612-2054

Hot Gas Decontamination Soil 99.99% removal of TNT       Successful pilot-scale demonstration
EPA Demo
Babcock & Wilcox, OH
Laurel Staley
(513) 569-7863
Cyclone Furnace Soil Organics & metals 820 F Swirling action mixes air & fuel Final product resembles volcanic glass (similar to ISV's product) $528/ton of soil.
Site Name/
Contact
Technology/
Vendor
Media Treated Contaminants Treated Operating Parameters Materials Handling Residuals Management Comments
EPA Demo
Ogden's Research Facility San Diego, CA

Douglas Grosse (513) 569-7844

Circulating bed combustor (CBC) Soil, sludge, liquids, solids, slurry Halogenated and nonhalogenated organic compounds, PCBs, dioxins 16-inch diameter CBC, 1,450-1,600 F, waste feed <1 inch Highly turbulent combustion zone. Mixing wastes Limestone added to neutralize acid gases DRE value of 99.99% for principal organics. Treated ash disposal Controlled sulfur oxide emissions by adding limestone.
EPA SITE Demo
Monaca, PA

1991

Donald Oberacker
(513) 569-7510

HRD flame reactor Wastes, soil, solids, fluid, dust, slag, sludge with high metal content Metals (zinc, lead, arsenic, silver, gold) and organics Combustion in O2 enriched chamber at 2,000 +C Requires dry wastes Nonleachable slag, disposal in landfill Secondary lead smelter soda slag processed for $932/ton. 1 to 3 tons/hour cap.
EPA SITE Demos
(1) Tampa, FL, 8/87
(2) Rose Township/Demode Road Superfund Site, MI, 11/87

John F. Martin
(513) 569-7696

Incineration: Infrared thermal destruction Soil, sediment, liquid organic wastes mixed with sand or soil Organics Infrared radiant heat of up to 1,850 F May need to restrict chloride levels in the feed PCBs consistently meet TSCA guidance 2 ppm in ash PCB DRE was greater than 99.99% based on detection limits. RCRA standards for particulate emissions questionable.
Peak Oil Site
Tampa, FL

Howard O. Wall EPA RREL
(513) 569-7691

Full scale: electric infrared mobile incineration unit Soil Oil sludge (PCBs and lead)       $180 to $800/metric ton ($164-$730/ton)
Site Name/
Contact
Technology/
Vendor
Media Treated Contaminants Treated Operating Parameters Materials Handling Residuals Management Comments
Savanna AD
Savanna, IL

Michael G. Cosmos (610) 701-7423

Full scale transportable incineration system 75,000 tons of soil 1,000 ppm TNT

Levels attained: < 1 ppm

      $180/metric ton ($173/ton) inclusive
Lauder Salvage Yard
Beardstown, IL

Michael G. Cosmos (610) 701-7423

Full scale transportable incineration system Soil From 12,000 ppm PCBs to < 1 ppm       $200/metric ton ($180/ton)
DOE Demo
Energy Technology Engineering Center, ORNL, LANL

Lawnie H. Taylor (301) 903-8119

Pyrolysis: Molten salt oxidation process Liquids & solids Radionuclides organics, oils, graphite, chemical warfare agents, & explosives 800-1,000 C Typical residence time is 2 seconds Waste passed through a sparged bed of turbulent molten salt. Off-gas filtered before release $500/ton.
Site Name/
Contact
Technology/
Vendor
Media Treated Contaminants Treated Operating Parameters Materials Handling Residuals Management Comments
HT-V
TDI Thermal Dynamics
Mobile thermal desorption unit with pyrolytic mode Soil Dioxin
99.99% removal
       
Deutsche Babcock Anlagen AG Pyrolysis - Desorb and combust volatiles Soil Polycyclic aromatics, 99.77% removal        
Wide Beach Superfund Site NY SoilTech, Inc. Pyrolysis - Anaerobic thermal processor (ATP), indirectly heated rotary kiln Soil From 5,000 ppm PCB to < 2 ppm       $290/metric ton ($265/ton)
EPA Remedial Action
McKin, ME

7/86 to 2/87

Sheila Eckman
(617) 573-5784

Thermal desorption

Canonie Env. Services Corp., Porter, IN

Soil (11,500 yd to a depth of 10 ft) VOCs Criteria:
0.1 ppm TCE

Input:
Up to 1,000 ppm
TCE
Output: 0.1 ppm

Continuous operation

6 to 8 minutes' retention time

300 F

Excavation Soils - solidified and disposed of on-site

Vapors - air carbon capture

Industrial landfill.
Site Name/
Contact
Technology/
Vendor
Media Treated Contaminants Treated Operating Parameters Materials Handling Residuals Management Comments
EPA Remedial Action
Otteti & Goss, NH

6/89 to 9/89

Stephen Calder
(617) 573-9626

Thermal desorption

Canonie Engineering

Soil (6,000 yd) TCE, PCE, DCA, benzene

Criteria:
1 ppm - Total VOCs and <100 ppm each individual vocOutput: <1 ppm total vocs

Batch process Excavation Screening Carbon from air pollution control unit regenerated off-site For more information on this project, see the close out report available from EPA Region I.
EPA Remedial Action
Outboard Marina, Waukegan Harbor (OU 3), IL

1/92 to 7/92

Cindy Nolan
(312) 886-0400

Thermal desorption

Canonie Environmental Services, Porter, IN

Soil/sediments (16,000 yd) PCBs

Initial 20,000 -100,000 ppm 99% removal

Continuous with a retention time of 15 minutes and throughput of 8 to 10 tons/hour

Temperature 1,100 F Moisture content 20% or less soda ash added to waste to meet DRE of 99.9999%

Excavation
Mixing
Dewatering
Cleaned soil and sediment stored in on-site containment cells. Wastewater discharged to POTW. Reduced PCB levels much more than expected.
Site Name/
Contact
Technology/
Vendor
Media Treated Contaminants Treated Operating Parameters Materials Handling Residuals Management Comments
EPA Remedial Action
Cannon Engineering/ MA

5/90 to 10/90

Richard Goehlert
(617) 573-5742

Thermal soil aeration

Canonie Environmental Services Corp., Porter, IN

Soil (11,300 tons) Criteria:
0.1 ppm - TCE, DCE, PCE
0.2 - Toluene, Xylene
0.5 - Vinyl chloride
SVOCs - 3 ppm (total)
Input:
500 to 3,000 ppm (total VOCs)
Output:
<0.25 ppm (total vocs)
Continuous operation

40 tons/hour

450 to 500 F

Moisture content before treatment - 5 to 25% moisture

Additives - dry soil (to reduce moisture content)

Excavation
Screening
Mixing
Dewatering
Residuals from air pollution control - disposed of off-site

Wastewater - treated on-site

The waste feed size limitation for the equipment, (1.875 inches), was an important consideration.

More information is in the RA report available from EPA Region I.

EPA Removal Action
Drexler RAMCOR, WA

7/92 to 8/92

Chris Field
(206) 553-1674

Low temperature thermal desorption treatment. Thermally treat 3,000 tons of soil on-site up to 700 F/Four Seasons Soil 3,000 tons (approximately 3,000 yd) Petroleum hydrocarbons, polynuclear aromatics, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene)

200-ppm TPH was target. Initial TPH was 70,000 ppm (high) to 15,000 - 20,000 ppm (average)

16 hours/day 12 to 15 tons/hour

Operating temperature up to 700 F

Excavation Screening Removed material greater than 2 inches. Rockwashing station for particles greater than 2 inches. Steam-cleaned large rocks. Treated soil was backfilled into the excavated areas on-site. Soil that did not meet the targets was retreated. Wastewater was treated on-site through carbon filters. Total cost approximately $250,000.
Site Name/
Contact
Technology/
Vendor
Media Treated Contaminants Treated Operating Parameters Materials Handling Residuals Management Comments
EPA Demo
ReSolve, Inc., Superfund Site, MA

1992

Paul DePercin
(513)569-7797 Carl Palmer
(803) 646-2413

X*TRAXTM thermal desorption Soil VOCs, SVOCs, & PCBs

Average PCB removal efficiency: 99%

Heated rotary dryer, 750-950 F Separation technique Negligible organic air emission. No PCBs detected in vent gases Metal concentrations and soil physical properties not altered by system.
EPA Demo
Wide Beach Development Superfund Site, NY & Outboard Marine Corp., IL

1991 & 1992

Paul dePercin
(513) 569-7797

Anaerobic thermal processor Soil & refinery wastes PCBs (99% reduction), chlorinated pesticides, & VOCs Thermal zones: preheat, retort, combustion, & cooling Mixing occurs in rotary kiln Vaporized contaminant stream through cyclone, baghouse, scrubber, and carbon. No dioxins or furans created.
Site Name/
Contact
Technology/
Vendor
Media Treated Contaminants Treated Operating Parameters Materials Handling Residuals Management Comments
EPA Demo
Niagara-Mohawk Power Co., NY

6/91

Ronald Lewis
(513) 569-7856

High Temperature Thermal Processor Solids & sludges VOCs, SVOCs, & PCBs 850 F, 150 F for safe handling Rotation of screws moves material Controlled by an indirect condensing system & activated carbon beds Not suitable for heavy metals. Prescreening necessary to obtain particles <1 inch.
EPA Demo
Pesticide Site, AZ

9/92

Paul DePercin
(513)569-7797 Chetan Trivedi
(219)926-7169

Low Temperature Thermal Aeration (LTTA) Soils, sediments & sludges Removal efficiencies: >99%-VOCs @ 5,400 mg/kg
>92%-pesticides @ 1,500 mg/kg

67-96% SVOCs @ 6.5 mg/kg

800 f Dry, pug mill, cyclonic separators, baghouse, venturi scrubber, GAC. Treated exhaust air and liquid with GAC.

Does not generate dioxins or furans.

Efficient performance with no down time.
Site Name/
Contact
Technology/
Vendor
Media Treated Contaminants Treated Operating Parameters Materials Handling Residuals Management Comments
Army Demo
Letterkenny Army Depot, PA

8/85 to 9/85

Capt. Kevin Keehan
(410)671-2054 Mike Cosmos
(610)701-7423

Low Temperature Thermal Stripping

McLaren/Hart Environmental Engineering
(704)587-0003

Soil VOCs (chlorinated solvents & fuels); 99.9% destruction Up to 650 F Churning - Holo-Flite screw thermal processor Gaseous effluent with concentrated contaminants. Nitrogen may be used if contaminants are explosive.
EPA & Army Demo
Tinker AFB, OK & Anderson Development Co. Superfund Site, MI

1989

Paul dePercin
(513)569-7797 Capt. Kevin Keehan
(410)671-2054 Mike Cosmos
(610)701-7423

Low Temperature Thermal Treatment (LT3) Soil VOCs & SVOCs; diesel fuel, gasoline & PAHs Area required: 5,000 ft2. Soil heated to 400-500 F. Treatment capacity was 18,000-20,000 lb/hour. Covered troughs that house inter-meshed screw conveyors. Organic phases are disposed of off-site All cleanup goals met when soil above 215 F.
Site Name/
Contact
Technology/
Vendor
Media Treated Contaminants Treated Operating Parameters Materials Handling Residuals Management Comments
EPA SITE Demo
EPA Combustion Research Facility, Jefferson, AK

11/87 to 1/88

Laurel Staley
(513)569-7863

PYRETRON thermal destruction Soil, sludge, solid waste Organics O2 enhanced combustion 40% contaminated soil, 60% decanter tank tar sludge from coking operations DRE for all POHCs >99.99% Not suitable for aqueous, RCRA heavy metal, or inorganic wastes.
Alaskan Battery Enterprises Superfund Site,
Fairbanks, AK

Hugh Masters
EPA RREL

Thermal Desorption featuring gravity separation and particle size classification Soil From 2,280- 10,374 ppm lead to 15-2,541 ppm lead       $182/metric ton ($165/ton)
Escambia Wood Treating Company
Superfund Site,
Pensacola, FL

Terri Richardson
EPA RREL

Thermal Desorption featuring particle size classification and surfactant addition. Soil From 550- 1,700 ppm PAHs,
48-210 ppm PCP, to 45 ppm PAHs,
3 ppm PCPs
      $151/metric ton ($137/ton) (projected)
Site Name/
Contact
Technology/
Vendor
Media Treated Contaminants Treated Operating Parameters Materials Handling Residuals Management Comments
Pristine, Inc., Reading, OH

Tom Alcamo
U.S. EPA
(312)886-7278

Thermal Desorption Soils with a wide range of pH and moisture conditions. 11,500 tons of soil VOCs up to 0.14 ppm; SVOCs up to 130 ppm; 4,4-DDT ranging from 0.11 to 8.2 ppm; Lead ranging from 26 to 1,100
>99.99% Destruction and Removal Efficiencies for PAHs and pesticides.
Treated at 1,009.9 to 1,034.1F.      
T H Agriculture & Nutrition Company Superfund Site, Albany, GA

R. Donald Rigger (404)347-3931

Thermal desorption 42,000 tons of soil Organochlorine (OLC) pesticides
Concentration of OLC pesticides: >1,000 mg/kg >98% average removal efficiencies
Treated at 833 to 1,080F for 15 minutes.     Treatment cost: $849,996; Before-treatment cost: $252,582.
$200 per ton or $340 per cubic yard soil treated.
Site Name/
Contact
Technology/
Vendor
Media Treated Contaminants Treated Operating Parameters Materials Handling Residuals Management Comments
Anderson Development Company Superfund Site, Adrian, MI

Jim Hahnenburg
(312)353-4213

Full-scale treatment using a thermal auger system with hollow-screw conveyors. 5,100 tons of soil MBOCA, VOCs, PAHs and heavy metals treated at 500-530F for 90 minutes.      
McKin Company Superfund Site, Gray, ME

Sheila Eckman
(617)573-5784

Thermal Desorption 11,500 cubic yards of soil 3,310 mg/kg of TCE, 130 mg/kg of Ethylbenzene, 35 mg/kg of Toluene. Treated to <0.1 mg/kg of TCE, <1 mg/kg of other VOCs Treated at 250-400F for 6 minutes.     Total cost: $2,900,000

Sources: Innovative Treatment Technologies: Annual Status Report (EPA, Eighth Edition, Nov. 1996). Completed North American Innovative Remediation Technology Demonstration Projects (EPA, Aug.1996)