Magic Marker Site Phytoremediation
- Changes in lead levels in a treatment plot measuring 77 feet by 50 feet were compared to those in a control plot measuring 40 feet by 30 feet during the demonstration.
- Two crops of Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea) were planted and harvested in 1997. A third crop of sunflowers (Helianthus annus) was grown and harvested in 1998.
- Plant tissue samples were collected and analyzed to determine whether the plants were able to bioaccumulate lead.
Fort Dix Site Phytoremediation
- The demonstration was conducted in a 1.25 acre ex situ lined treatment cell.
- Excess water from irrigation and precipitation was collected in a lined catchment basin and recirculated for irrigation as needed.
- Three crops were planted harvested during the 2000 growing season: (1) Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea), (2) sunflowers (Helianthus annus), and (3) a mixture of rye (Secale cereale) and barley (Hordeum vulgare).
U.S. EPA NRMRL
5995 Center Hill Avenue
Cincinnati, OH 45224
Phone: (513) 569-7149
Metals - Lead
- Lead in soil as high as 57,114 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg)
- Mean lead concentration in soil of 516 mg/kg
Lead-acid battery manufacturing - Magic Marker
Small arms firing range - Fort Dix
Type/Quantity of Media Treated:
- Magic Marker - in situ soil, 77 feet by 50 feet by 6 inches deep
- Fort Dix - ex situ soil, 1.25 acres by 12 inches deep
Purpose/Significance of Application:
Magic Marker - Demonstration of phytoremediation treatment of lead in surface soil
Fort Dix - Demonstration of the ability of phytoremediation treatment to reduce lead concentrations in soil following soil washing
Regulatory Requirements/Cleanup Goals:
- Achieve average lead concentrations in above-ground plant tissue of greater than 200 mg/kg on a dry weight basis
- Demonstrate a 15% reduction in dry weight soil lead concentrations where initial concentrations exceeded 400 mg/kg
- Achieve the NJDEP industrial total lead concentration goal of 600 mg/kg or the residential goal of 400 mg/kg
- Reduce soil leachable lead concentrations to 5 milligrams per liter (mg/L), as measured by the EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP)
- Above-ground plant tissue lead concentrations on a dry weight basis in mg/kg were: Brassica juncea crop 1- 830; Brassica juncea crop 2 - 2,300; Helianthus annus - 400
- A 17% reduction in dry weight soil lead concentrations was achieved where initial concentrations exceeded 400 mg/kg
- The average lead concentration in the treated surface soil (0 to 6 inches in depth) was 182 mg/kg, which was below the cleanup goal of 400 mg/kg
- The average lead concentration in the treated subsurface soil (6 to 12 inches in depth) was 398 mg/kg, which was below the cleanup goal of 400 mg/kg
- Information on leachable lead concentrations in the soil were not provided
- The demonstration generated 110,000 gallons of drainage water containing 160 mg/L lead
- Above-ground plant tissue lead concentrations on a dry weight basis in mg/kg were: Brassica juncea crop 1- 1,437; Helianthus annus crop 2 - 1,675; Secale cereale and Hordeum vulgare crop 3- 4,395
- No specific costs were provided for the demonstrations
- The estimated cost per cubic yard for phytoremediation of soil ranged from $23.87 for a 1-crop in situ treatment with low biomass disposal costs to $127.40 for a 3-crop ex situ treatment with high biomass disposal
The seven-acre Magic Marker site located in Trenton, NJ is an urban area "Brownfield." The site was used for lead-acid battery manufacturing from 1947 to 1979 and then by the Magic Marker facility up until its closure in 1987. A demonstration was performed under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program between May 1997 and November 1998 to determine whether phytoremediation could effectively reduce lead contamination in surface soils. The demonstration included planting and harvesting two crops of Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea) in 1997 and a crop of sunflowers (Helianthus annus) in 1998. The demonstration achieved its objectives of 200 mg/kg lead in above-ground plant tissues and reduction of soil lead concentrations by 15%.
The soil at SAFR 24 at Fort Dix, NJ was determined to be contaminated with lead, including spent bullets and bullet fragments. A joint demonstration with the U.S. Department of Defense RangeSafe Technology Demonstration Initiative (RTDI) and the SITE program was performed to evaluate the use of soil washing followed by phytoremediation to treat lead in soil at the site. After soil washing, the soil was placed in a 1.25 acre ex situ lined treatment cell, where the phytoremediation was conducted. The demonstration included planting and harvesting three crops during the 2000 growing season: (1) Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea), (2) sunflowers (Helianthus annus), and (3) a mixture of rye (Secale cereale) and barley (Hordeum vulgare). The demonstration achieved its treatment objective of reducing lead concentrations to below 400 mg/kg.