Permeable Reactive Barriers (PRBs) Interim Summary Report: PRBs Using Continuous Walls to Treat Chlorinated Solvents

Site Name:

Multiple (6) Sites


- Copenhagen Freight Yard, Copenhagen, Denmark
- Former Manufacturing Site, Fairfield, New Jersey
- Industrial Site, Manning, South Carolina
- Kansas City Plant, Kansas City, Missouri
- Shaw Air Force Base (AFB), Sumter, South Carolina
- Borden Aquifer, Ontario Canada

Period of

Installation dates ranging from 1991 (Borden Aquifer) -1998 (Copenhagen Freight Yard)


Full scale and field demonstrations

Permeable Reactive Barriers using a continuous wall to treat groundwater contaminated with chlorinated solvents:

- Copenhagen Freight Yard- Supported excavation, using iron
- Former Manufacturing Site- Supported excavation, using iron and sand
- Industrial Site- Continuous trench, using iron
- Kansas City Plant- Supported excavation, using iron and sand
- Shaw Air Force Base- Continuous trench, using iron
- Borden Aquifer- Supported excavation, using iron and sand

Cleanup Authority:
CERCLA, RCRA, and other regulatory programs (varied by site)

Varied by site

Chlorinated Solvents
- The maximum influent concentration for chlorinated solvents was 250,000 µg/L for TCE

Waste Source:
Varied by site

Type/Quantity of Media Treated:

Purpose/Significance of Application:
Use of PRBs with a continuous wall configuration to treat groundwater contaminated primarily with chlorinated solvents

Regulatory Requirements/Cleanup Goals:
Regulatory requirements and cleanup goals varied by site, ranging from non-detect levels to 340 µg/L

All six PRBs profiled in the case study provided some data about project performance; four of the sites (the Copenhagen Freight Yard, the Former Manufacturing Site, the Industrial Site, and the Kansas City Plant) also provided information about goals for project performance. All four of those PRBs met, or were meeting, some or all of their performance goals based on available information. At the six sites, individual contaminant concentrations were reduced to below site-specific cleanup goals ranging from non-detect levels to 340 µg/L.

Cost Factors:
Installation cost information was available for all the projects included in the report. Total project installation costs ranged from $30,000 for the Borden Aquifer PRB to $1.3 million for the PRB at the Kansas City Plant. The Borden PRB was a pilot-scale project and the installation cost excluded the cost for labor and reactive media, which had been donated. The Kansas City PRB was a full-scale project and was 130 feet long. Design costs ranging from $50,000 for the Industrial Site PRB to $200,000 for the Kansas City PRB were provided for four of the sites.

This report provides an interim summary of information about six projects (five full-scale and one pilot-scale) involving the application of PRB technologies with a continuous wall configuration in the treatment of groundwater contaminated with chlorinated solvents.

Continuous walls have been used to intercept and treat groundwater contaminated with chlorinated solvents without significantly affecting groundwater flow. Lessons learned at the PRB sites summarized in this report include those related to specific successes and issues associated with installing continuous walls under various environmental conditions and factors affecting the PRB performance at specific sites.