Permeable Reactive Barriers (PRBs) Interim Summary Report: PRBs Using Injection and Other Emerging Technologies

Site Name:

Multiple (16) Sites

Location:

- Caldwell Trucking, Northern New Jersey
- Former Dry Cleaning Facility, Westphalia, Germany
- Former Industrial Site, Brunn Am Gebirge, Austria
- Arrowhead Associates Former Metal Plating Operation Superfund Site, Montross, Virginia
- Marzone Inc., Chevron Chemical Company, Tifton, Georgia
- Tacony Warehouse, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
- 100D Area, Hanford Site, Hanford, Washington
- Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Cape Canaveral, Florida
- Launch Complex 34, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Cape Canaveral, Florida
- DuPont, Oakley, California
- DuPont, Kinston, North Carolina
- Industrial Site, Belfast, Northern Ireland
- Massachusetts Military Reservation (MMR) CS-10 Plume, Falmouth, Massachusetts
- SAFIRA Test Site, Bitterfeld, Germany
- Savannah River Site TNX Area/ Aiken, South Carolina
- X-625 Groundwater Treatment Facility, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

Period of
Operation:

Installation dates ranging from 1995 (Industrial site) - to 2002 (Arrowhead Associates Former Metal Plating Operation)

Cleanup
Type:

Full scale and field demonstrations

Technology:
Permeable Reactive Barriers using injection and other technologies:

- Caldwell Trucking - Full scale wall, hydraulic fracturing, using iron
- Former Dry Cleaning Facility - Full scale wall, mandrel (H-beam), using iron with iron sponges
- Former Industrial - Full scale reactive vessel, jetting, using activated carbon
- Arrowhead Associates Former Metal Plating Operation - Full scale wall, hydraulic fracturing, using iron
- Marzone Inc./Chevron Chemical Company - Full scale funnel and gate, vibrated I-beam, using activated carbon
- Tacony Warehouse - Full scale reactive vessel, caisson auger, using iron
- 100D Area, Hanford Site - Pilot scale wall, injection, using sodium dithionite
- Cape Canaveral Air Force Station - Pilot scale wall, vibrated I-beam and jetting, using iron
- Launch Complex 34, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station - Pilot scale wall, deep soil mixing, using iron and gravel
- DuPont/ Oakley - Pilot scale wall, hydraulic fracturing, using granular cast iron
- DuPont/ Kinston - Pilot scale wall, hydraulic fracturing, using granular iron
- Industrial Site - Pilot scale reaction vessel, installation method not provided, using iron
- Massachusetts Military Reservation (MMR) CS-10 Plume - Pilot scale wall, hydraulic fracturing, using iron
- SAFIRA Test Site - Pilot scale reaction vessel, large diameter shafts, using hydrogen activation systems
- Savannah River Site TNX Area - Pilot scale reaction vessel, installation method not provided, iron
- X-625 Groundwater Treatment Facility - Pilot scale reaction vessel, horizontal wells, iron

Cleanup Authority:
CERCLA, RCRA, and other regulatory programs
(varied by site)

Contacts:
Varied by site

Contaminants:
Chlorinated Solvents, BTEX, Pesticides, Freon, Metals, Radionuclides
- TCE, PCE, DCE, DCA, VC, dichloromethane, chlorobenzene, chloroform, and dichlorobenzene
- Maximum influent concentrations for individual contaminants were 390,000 ug/L for TCE; 94,000,000 ug/L for xylenes

Waste Source:
Varied by site

Type/Quantity of Media Treated:
Groundwater

Purpose/Significance of Application:
Use of PRBs using injection or other emerging technologies as an installation method to treat contaminated groundwater

Regulatory Requirements/Cleanup Goals:
Regulatory requirements and cleanup goals varied by site, ranging from non-detect to 2,130 ug/L.

Results:
Of the six full-scale PRBs, two (Marzone and Tacony) had met or were meeting cleanup goals and one (Caldwell Trucking) had not met its the cleanup goals. For the remaining three full-scale projects, cleanup goals were not established or performance data not provided. Quantitative information about cleanup goals was not provided for all sites. At the sites that did provide data and were meeting their goals, individual contaminant concentrations were reduced to below site-specific cleanup goals ranging from non-detect to 2,130 ug/L.

Cost Factors:
Cost information (excluding design when provided) was available for 14 of the 16 projects included in the report. Data was provided about installation costs and design costs (for some projects) but not about operation and maintenance costs. For the sites that provided cost data about design, costs ranged from $30,000 to $292,000 per site. The costs to install the PRBs ranged from $130,000 to approximately $5 million per site.

Description:
This report provides an interim summary of information about 16 projects (6 full-scale and 10 pilot-scale) involving the application of PRB technologies where injection or some other type of emerging technology was used for installation. The PRBs installed at these sites used various reactive media for the treatment of groundwater contaminated with chlorinated solvents, other organic contaminants, and/or inorganic contaminants.

Injection and other technologies have been used in the more recent past for several reasons, including avoiding a major disturbance of the subsurface materials, and allowing direct placement of reactive media to the contaminant zones. Lessons learned at the PRB sites summarized in this report include those related to specific successes and issues associated with the emerging technologies employed and their various installation methods and the suitability to specific applications.