Soil Vapor Extraction (SVE) and Air Sparging at Four Drycleaner Sites, Various Locations

Site Name:

Multiple (4) Dry Cleaner Sites


- Alpine Cleaners, OR
- Dry Clean USA #11401, Boca Raton, FL
- Former American Uniform, Hutchinson, KS
- One Hour Dry Cleaners, Coral Springs, FL

Period of

- Alpine Cleaners - 5 years (dates not specified)
- Dry Clean USA #11401 - October, 2000 to September, 2001
- Former American Uniform - Not specified
- One Hour Dry Cleaners - August, 2000 to August, 2001


Full scale

SVE and Air Sparging
- SVE systems consisted of from 2 to 9 vapor extraction wells applying a vacuum of 3 to 123 inches of water and drawing 186 to 4,500 scfm of soil vapor at depths from 2 to15 feet bgs.
- Air sparging systems consisted of from 2 to12 sparging wells supplying air at a pressure of 27 to 53 psig at a rate of 14 to 43 scfm at depths from 40 to 85 feet bgs.

Cleanup Authority:

Varied by site

Chlorinated Solvents
- PCE soil concentrations varied among the sites and ranged from 0.01 to 12 mg/kg. Soil at one site was also contaminated with TCE-, cis-1,2-DCE
- PCE groundwater concentrations varied among the sites and ranged from 0.08 to 127 mg/L. Some sites reported other chlorinated organics in the soil such as TCE and cis-1,2-DCE. Two sites reported that DNAPLs were present or likely to be present.

Waste Source:
Waste and wastewater from drycleaning operations

Type/Quantity of Media Treated:
Soil and Groundwater
- Groundwater plumes areas ranged from 24,000 to 96,000 square feet

Purpose/Significance of Application:
Full-scale remediation of chlorinated solvents in soil and groundwater at drycleaner facilities using SVE and air sparging

Regulatory Requirements/Cleanup Goals:
- Cleanup goals were based on state regulatory standards and included 0.2 mg/kg PCE and 0.03 mg/kg leachable PCE
- Cleanup goals were based on state regulatory goals or drinking water MCLs, and ranged from 0.003 to 0.3 mg/L PCE. Cleanup goals for other contaminants were not provided.

Alpine Cleaners - The PCE groundwater plume continued to spread, although at a slow rate. PCE concentrations exceeded the treatment goal of less than 0.003 mg/L in several monitoring wells. The remediation system removed approximately 390 pounds of VOCs during 5 years of operation. The removal of VOCs leveled off after approximately 2 years of operation.

Dry Clean USA #11401 - Approximately 23.7 pounds of contaminants were removed from the subsurface. Total chlorinated ethylene concentrations in shallow- and intermediate-depth source area monitoring wells decreased by 2-3 orders of magnitude. However, cis-1,2-DCE concentrations rose two orders of magnitude in the deep-source area monitoring well. Five wells still contained contaminant concentrations exceeding MCLs.
Former American Uniform - The SVE system achieved cleanup goals to remediate the source area vadose zone. Significant reductions in the concentrations of chlorinated VOCs in the groundwater were observed, including a decrease in PCE concentrations. However, rebounding PCE concentrations were observed 6-months after the remediation was completed. The SVE system removed 221 lbs of PCE.

One Hour Dry Cleaners - Through August of 2001, approximately 4 pounds of contaminants were removed from the subsurface. Contaminant concentrations in source area monitoring wells were reduced two orders of magnitude.

Cost Factors:
Design and implementation costs ranged from $28,000 to $240,000; annual O&M costs ranged from $16,000 to $200,000.

SVE and air sparging was conducted at four drycleaner sites contaminated with chlorinated organic compounds from leaks, spills, or dumping of drycelaning solvents or wastewaters. Although all of the treatment systems removed contaminants from the subsurface, only one treatment achieved cleanup goals. Reported design and implementation costs ranged from $28,000 to $240,000. Reported annual O&M costs ranged from $16,000 to $200,000.