Multi-Phase Extraction or Pump and Treat at Five Drycleaner Sites, Various Locations

Site Name:

Multiple (5) Dry Cleaner Sites


- Former Big B Cleaners, Warrington, FL
- Former Sta-Brite Cleaners, Sarasota, FL
- Johannsen Cleaners, Lebanon, OR
- Koretizing Cleaners, Jacksonville, FL
- Nu Way II Cleaners, OR

Period of

- Former Big B Cleaners - March to August, 2000 and November, 2000 to January, 2001
- Former Sta-Brite Cleaners - June to August, 2001
- Johannsen Cleaners - Not provided
- Koretizing Cleaners - March to October, 2001
- Nu Way II Cleaners - Three years (remediation reported to be ongoing, specific dates not specified).


Full scale

Multi-phase extraction:
- Multi-phase extraction was applied at Former Big B Cleaners; Former Sta-Brite Cleaners; Johannsen Cleaners; and Koretizing Cleaners
- At the Former Big B Cleaners site, the treatment system consisted of two soil vapor extraction (SVE) wells installed in horizontal trenches 1.5 feet in depth and one groundwater capture well. A vacuum of 73 inches of water was applied to the SVE wells, resulting in an extracted air flow rate of 102 cfm. The groundwater well design pumping rate was 10 gpm. The groundwater treatment system was a packed tower air stripper. Residual VOCs were treated with a granular activated carbon system.
- At the Former Sta-Brite Cleaners site, the treatment system consisted of 8 recovery wells installed to depths of 17 to 19 feet bgs. The design vacuum of the system was 10 inches of mercury and 70 cfm.
- At the Johannsen Cleaners Site, the treatment system consisted of two horizontal headers with vertical wells to the groundwater table. The system removed soil vapor and groundwater treated them using air stripping or direct discharge to the atmosphere.
- At the Koretizing Cleaners Site, the treatment system consisted of 7 extraction wells to remove groundwater and soil vapor. Groundwater and soil vapor removed rates were 2 gpm and 175 scfm, respectively. Extracted vapors were treated using granular activated carbon and extracted groundwater was treated using a low-profile air stripper.

Pump-and Treat
- At the Nu Way II Cleaners site, the treatment system consisted of one LNAPL extraction well and one groundwater extraction well operating at 10-15 gal./min. Extracted groundwater was treated with an oil/water separator, air stripper, and carbon adsorption sand discharge to a local POTW.

Cleanup Authority:

Varied by site

Chlorinated Solvents
- 3 of 4 sites contaminated with PCE and TCE in soil and groundwater; one contaminated with PCE only
- Concentrations in groundwater varied by site ranging from 3 to 3,400 mg/L for PCE and 1 to 42 mg/L for TCE.
- DNAPLs were present or likely to be present at 4 sites; LNAPL reported at one site
- Three sites also had soil contamination, with concentrations of PCE ranging from 76 to 37,000 mg/L. Contamination of soil with other chlorinated VOCs, such as TCE, and VCE, was also reported.

Waste Source:
Waste and wastewater from drycleaning operations

Type/Quantity of Media Treated:
Groundwater and Soil
- Groundwater plume areas ranged from 0.27 to 17 acres. The deepest reported plume went to 92 feet below ground surface. Actual treatment areas ranged from 6,000 to 150,000 cubic feet for groundwater treatments.

Purpose/Significance of Application:
Use of multi-phase extraction or pump and treat to cleanup soil and groundwater contaminated with chlorinated solvents from drycleaning operations

Regulatory Requirements/Cleanup Goals:
At 3 sites the reported cleanup goals for groundwater were the drinking water MCL for PCE or TCE (less than 0.003 mg/L). For soil the cleanup goals were reported as leachability-based levels for PCE (less than 0.03 mg/kg). No cleanup goals were reported for the Johannsen Cleaners site. At the Nu Way II Cleaners site, no numeric cleanup goals were reported, but the goals removal of the contaminant source and protection or mitigation of threats to human health and the environment were reported.

- At the Former Big B Cleaners site, 215 pounds of PCE were removed from the unsaturated zone, and post-treatment PCE levels were below detection limits 9 of 14 samples. Post-treatment PCE concentrations in groundwater were not specified.
- At the Former Sta-Brite Cleaners site, an estimated 150 pounds of contaminant mass was removed during the first 3 months of operation. Additional performance data are not provided.
- Treatment results were not provided for the Johannsen Cleaners site.
- At the Koretizing Cleaners site, 24 pounds of contaminant were removed, and the concentrations of chlorinated ethenes were reduced by approximately 2 orders of magnitude.
- At the Nu Way II Cleaners site, 40 pounds of VOCs and 50 pounds of petroleum hydrocarbons were removed.

Cost Factors:
Reported design and implementation costs:
- Former Big B Cleaners - $61,000
- Former Sta-Brite Cleaners - $130,000
- Johannsen Cleaners - estimated $60,000 to $85,000
- Koretizing Cleaners - $245,000
- Nu Way II Cleaners - Not specified

Multi-phase extraction was conducted at four drycleaner sites and pump and treat at one drycleaner site to remediate soil and groundwater contaminated with chlorinated solvents. The amount of contaminant removed from the subsurface varied by site, with as much as 215 pounds of PCE removed at the Former Big B Cleaners site.