Land Treatment at the Brown Wood Preserving Superfund Site, Live Oak, Florida

Site Name:

Brown Wood Preserving Superfund Site


Live Oak, Florida

Period of

January 1989 to July 1990


Full-scale cleanup


John Ryan
Remediation Technologies, Inc. (ReTeC)
1011 Southwest Klickitat Way, Suite 207
Seattle, WA 98134
(206) 624-9349

Land Treatment - Construction of the land treatment area (LTA) included installation of a clay liner, berm, run-on swales, and a subsurface drainage system- Retention pond for run-off control; portable irrigation system - Treatment performed using three lifts of soil; first lift inoculated with PAH-degrading microorganisms - Lifts cultivated once every two weeks; soil moisture content maintained at 10%

Cleanup Authority:
CERCLA - ROD Date: 4/8/88 - PRP Lead

SIC Code:
2491B (Wood Preserving
using Creosote)
Point of Contact:
Martha Berry
Remedial Project Manager
U.S. EPA Region 4
345 Courtland Street, N.E.
Atlanta, GA 30365
(404) 347-3016

Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) - Primary constituents in creosote - Total PAH concentrations in stockpiled soil ranged from 100 to 208 mg/kg

Waste Source:
Manufacturing Process; Lagoon

Type/Quantity of Media Treated:
Soil - 8,100 cubic yards of soil treated in three lifts - Mixture of lagoon contents; lagoon had a clay bottom and sandy contents, which ranged from silty clay to fine sand

Purpose/Significance of Application:
This was one of the early applications of land treatment of creosote- contaminated soil at a Superfund site.

Regulatory Requirements/Cleanup Goals:
- ROD specified cleanup goals for PAHs in terms of Total Carcinogenic Indicator Chemicals (TCICs)

- TCICs defined as the sum of the concentrations of six constituents: benzo(a)anthracene; benzo(a)pyrene; benzo(b)fluoranthene; chrysene; dibenzo(a,h)anthracene; and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene - ROD required reduction of TCIC concentration to 100 mg/kg within two years of initial seeding

The cleanup goal was achieved within 18 months - TCIC concentrations at 18 months ranged from 23 to 92 mg/kg

Cost Factors:
Total costs for treatment activities at this site were approximately $565,400 (including solids preparation and handling; mobilization/setup; and short-term (up to 3 years) and long-term (over 3 years) operation costs) - Over half of total costs (about $312,000) were for short-term operation - Before treatment costs were approximately $58,000 (including mobilization and preparatory work, site work, and solids collection and containment) - After treatment costs were approximately $9,800 for demobilization

From 1948 to 1978, the Brown Wood Preserving site was used to pressure treat lumber products with creosote. While pentachlorophenol was occasionally used, creosote was the primary wood preservative. Lumber was pressure treated in two cylinders and wastewaters from these cylinders were discharged to a lagoon. The lagoon and soils at the site were determined to be contaminated with high levels of organics (primarily polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) found in creosote) and the site was placed on the NPL in December 1982. In April 1988, following the completion of several interim removal activities, a Record of Decision (ROD) was signed specifying land treatment for contaminated soils stockpiled during the interim removal activities.

Land treatment of the PAH-contaminated soils was performed from January 1989 to July 1990. Approximately 8,100 cubic yards of stockpiled soil were treated in three lifts. The cleanup goal specified in the ROD was 100 mg/kg for Total Carcinogenic Indicator Chemicals (TCICs - the sum of the concentrations of six PAHs selected by EPA based on the results of a risk assessment) to be achieved within two years of operation. The cleanup goal was achieved within 18 months using land treatment, 6 months ahead of the 2-year timeframe specified in the ROD. The concentrations of TCICs measured during verification sampling (July 1990) ranged from 23 to 92 mg/kg. The LTA was revegetated in October 1991 and approximately 90% of the former LTA was covered with native grasses by March 1992.

The total treatment cost for this application at the Brown Wood site was approximately $565,400. The treatment costs included solids preparation and handling, mobilization and setup, and operation costs. In addition, there were before- treatment costs (mobilization and preparatory work, site work, and solids collection and containment) of approximately $58,000 and after-treatment costs (demobilization) of approximately $9,800. This application is notable for being one of the early applications of land treatment of creosote-contaminated soil at a Superfund site.