Pump and Treat of Contaminated Groundwater at the U.S. Department of Energy's Kansas City Plant, Kansas City, Missouri

Site Name:

U.S. DOE Kansas City


Kansas City, Missouri

Period of

Status: Ongoing Report covers - 5/88 to 2/94


Full-scale cleanup (interim results)


Allied Signal, Inc.

Groundwater Extraction with Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) - 14 extraction wells and one trench; screened intervals of wells ranged from 27 feet to approximately 47 feet below ground surface; flow rates ranged from 0.9 to 5 gallons per minute (gpm) based on a design flow rate of 2 gpm - Interceptor trench of 250 ft. in length; ranged in depth from about 22 ft. to 31 ft. - Treatment system - acidification to solubilize inorganic metals, bag filtration, UV/peroxide oxidation, and neutralization - Initial AOP - UV/Ozone/Peroxide system replaced in May 1993 with a high intensity UV/Peroxide system

Cleanup Authority:
RCRA Corrective Action and Other: Kansas City Water and Pollution Control Department

SIC Code:
9711 (National Security) 3724 (aircraft-engine manufacturing)
Point of Contact:
G.P. Keary Environmental Restoration Program Manager DOE Kansas City Plant Kansas City, MO

Chlorinated Aliphatics; includes Tetrachloroethene (PCE), Trichloroethene (TCE), 1,2-Dichloroethenes (1,2-DCEs), and Vinyl Chloride PCBs, Petroleum Hydrocarbons, and Metals - TCE concentrations of > 10,000 ~g/L in groundwater - Presence of DNAPLs suspected

Waste Source:
Manufacturing Process

Type/Quantity of Media Treated:
Groundwater - 11.2 million gallons treated (1993) - Horizontal/Vertical distribution of VOCs in groundwater - up to 4,000 ft. horizontal and over 40 ft. vertical - Alluvial deposits underlain by bedrock consisting of sandstone and shale - Shale is relatively impermeable - Porosity of aquifer is 20% - Horizontal Hydraulic Conductivity of aquifer is 1.1 to 2.3 ft/day; sandstone is 0.04 to 0.005 ft/day; underlying shale is impermeable in water

Purpose/Significance of Application:
Full scale remediation of groundwater contaminated with VOCs using advanced oxidation processes (UV/peroxide).

Regulatory Requirements/Cleanup Goals:
- Final cleanup goals for site have not been established at time of report; will be set subsequent to RFI/CMS activities - Treated groundwater discharged to municipal sewer system must meet requirements of permit issued by the Kansas City Water and Pollution Control Department; for organics - total organic halogen 0.16 mg/L; metals - 0.69 to 100 mg/L

As of February 1994:
- Influent VOC concentrations to UV/Peroxide treatment system were 10.6 mg/L with an average influent concentration of 25 mg/L; effluent concentrations were 0.01 mg/L - The UV/peroxide system destroyed > 99.95% VOCs - PCBs were detected at levels up to 0.3 ~g/L in influent to UV/peroxide unit; not detected in effluent - VOC contaminant plume appears to be contained - No significant change in VOC groundwater concentrations at this time

Cost Factors:
- Total Capital Costs: $1,383,400 (including equipment, site preparation, construction/engineering, startup) - Annual Operating Costs: $355,200 (including maintenance, project management, laboratory analysis, supplies) - An estimated total cost for completing the cleanup is not available at this time.

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Kansas City Plant, constructed in 1942, has been used for aircraft engine manufacturing, production of nuclear weapons components, and defense-related research and manufacturing operations. During the 1980s, hydrogeologic investigations identified soil and groundwater contamination at the site which had resulted from releases from the research and manufacturing operations. The primary contaminants detected included chlorinated VOCs, aromatic VOCs, PCBs, and metals. DNAPLs are suspected in the groundwater, but have not been detected at this time. Final cleanup goals have not been established at this time. Treated water from the system is discharged to the municipal sanitary sewer system under the provisions of a Kansas City Water and Pollution Control Department wastewater discharge permit (2/88).

Operation of a groundwater pump and treat system, which includes an Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP), began in May 1988 under RCRA corrective action. The initial system included 14 extraction wells followed by a low intensity Ultraviolet (UV)/Ozone/Peroxide treatment system. This system was replaced in May 1993 by a high intensity UV/Peroxide system to provide additional 30 GPM treatment capacity for groundwater and to correct operational problems with the initial unit (equipment malfunctions and downtime). While the cleanup is ongoing at this time and final performance data are not yet available, interim results indicate that the extraction system appears to be containing the VOC contaminant plume. However, the concentrations of VOC in the groundwater have not changed significantly.

The total capital costs for this application were $1,383,400 and the annual operating costs were $355,200. With respect to the AOP, the replacement of the low intensity UV/ozone/peroxide system with the high intensity UV/peroxide system resulted in both increased treatment capacity and cost savings while meeting the discharge limits for the treated water. The high intensity UV/peroxide system eliminated the need for GAC polishing and treatment of air emissions and reduced operation and maintenance costs. Although more expensive than alternatives such as air stripping, AOP was selected because it destroys the contaminants rather than transferring contaminants to other media.