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Electrical Resistive Heating at the Avery Dennison Site, Waukegan, Illinois

Site Name:

Avery Dennison


Waukegan, Illinois

Period of

December 1999 to November 2000



Electrical Resistive Heating (ERH)
- 20 treatment cells; electrodes were installed around the perimeter of each cell to a depth of 24 feet; 2 thermocouples were installed in the center of each treatment cell, at the shallowest and deepest levels of contamination, 4 and 24 feet bgs.
- Total of 95 copper electrodes, including six installed below an active street and 16 installed inside the existing building; designed power input - 610 kW ; design heating rate of 1°C per day until a temperature above 75°C was achieved
- 34 recovery wells at 20 locations to extract of soil vapor and steam
- After four weeks of operation, the average soil temperature, heating rate, and input to the subsurface were below design targets; vendor determined that the copper electrodes had oxidized and down hole power cables to the electrodes were damaged
- 1-inch galvanized steel pipes were installed around each electrode; the power cables were attached above ground
- Maximum temperature - 65°C to 100°C; average delivery of power to the subsurface was 320 kW, less than the expected delivery of 610kW

Cleanup Authority:


Technology System Vendor
Chris Thomas
Current Environmental Solutions
Telephone: (847) 298-2764
State Regulator
Jennifer Seul
Illinois Environmental Protection Agency Bureau of Land
Division of Remediation Management
Remedial Project Management Section
1021 North Grand Avenue East
Post Office Box 19276
Springfield, IL 62794-9276
Telephone: (217)785-9399

- Methylene chloride

Waste Source:
Leaking underground transfer pipe and storage areas used for methylene chloride

Type/Quantity of Media Treated:
Source zone- 16,000 yds3 (based on an estimated soil density of 1.3 tons per yd3, corresponds to 21,000 tons treated)

Purpose/Significance of Application:
Use of ERH to treat a methylene chloride source zone

Regulatory Requirements/Cleanup Goals:
- MeCl in the soil below 24 mg/kg, based on Illinois EPA’s Tiered Approach to Corrective Action Objectives (TACO)

- Results of soil samples taken from the treatment cells indicated that, with the exception of four treatment cells, concentrations of MeCl had been reduced to below the treatment goals by October 2000
- Additional galvanized steel pipe electrodes were added to the four treatment cells, and the treatment system was operated in these cells for another month, with shut down in November, 2000
- Average MeCl concentrations in soil were reduced to 2.51 mg/kg

Cost Factors:
No cost information was provided for this application

The Avery Dennison site is located in the Waukegan-Gurnee Industrial Park in Waukegan, Illinois. From 1975 through 1992 film coating operations were performed at the site. Methylene chloride (MeCl) used in these operations was unloaded in the northeast corner of the building, and transferred by underground piping to above-ground storage tanks in the northwest corner of the building. In May 1985, an inventory check indicated that approximately 1,585 gallons of MeCl was released from the underground pipe. Site investigations indicated that the released MeCl was present in the soil and groundwater beneath the loading area, the bulk storage tank area, the underground transfer pipe, and a former stormwater drainage system. Cleanup activities at the site performed from 1985 through 1998 included excavation, soil vapor extraction, groundwater pump and treat, and air sparging. The results of additional investigations indicated that DNAPL was present in soil at the site. ERH was used from December 1999 through November 2000 to address the DNAPL source in the unsaturated zone.

The ERH system included 95 copper electrodes installed around the perimeter of 20 treatment cells, including six electrodes installed below an active street, and sixteen installed inside the existing building. Thirty four recovery wells were installed to extract of soil vapor and steam. Two thermocouples were installed in the center of each treatment cell, at the shallowest (4 ft) and deepest (24 ft) levels of contamination. ERH was performed in the western portion of the treatment zone starting in December 1999 and in the eastern portion of the treatment zone starting in June 2000. During the first four weeks of operation, the system did not achieve the target heating rate and power input to the subsurface. The vendor found that the electrodes had oxidized and that the down hole power cables had been damaged. System modifications included installing galvanized steel pipes around the electrodes and using above-ground power cables. The system was restarted and achieved the target heating rate and soil temperature, though the power input remained below the design level. With the exception of four treatment cells, the concentrations of methylene chloride were reduced to below cleanup goals by October 2000. Additional electrodes were added to these cells and the system was operated another month to meet the cleanup goals. No cost data were available for this application.