Soil Vapor Extraction (SVE) at Six Drycleaner Sites, Various Locations

Site Name:

Multiple (6) Dry Cleaner Sites

Location:

- ABC Cleaners, Monroe, MI
- Art’s Dry Cleaners, Charlevoix, MI
- Cox’s One Hour Martinizing, Portland, OR
- Crain Fabric Care Center, Traverse City, MI
- Sunshine Laundry, St. Johns, MI
- Wash ‘N Dry Cleaners, Spring Arbor, MI

Period of
Operation:

- ABC Cleaners, March, 1993
- Art’s Dry Cleaners, October, 1994
- Cox One Hour Martinizing, Summer, 1997
-Crain Fabric Care Center, November 1992
- Sunshine Laundry, Not specified
- Wash ‘N Dry Cleaners, Not specified

Cleanup
Type:

Full scale

Technology:
SVE
- At the Cox One Hour Martinizing site, the SVE system consisted of six wells screened at depths ranging from 5 to 40 ft bgs. Two blowers applied a vacuum to wells, and recovered air and vapors were discharged to the atmosphere through a stack extended above the existing dry cleaner building.
- At Art’s Dry Cleaners, SVE was implemented with carbon adsorption for vapor treatment.
- No information was provided about the design of the SVE systems at the other sites.

Cleanup Authority:
State

Contacts:
Varied by site

Contaminants:
Chlorinated Solvents
- Concentrations of PCE in soil varied among the sites and ranged from 0.077 to 1,000 mg/kg. Some of the sites (Wash ‘N Dry Cleaners, Art’s Dry Cleaners, and ABC Cleaners) reported other chlorinated organics in the soil such as TCE, 1,1,1-TCA, cis-1,2-DCE, methylene chloride, and chloroform.
- 1 site (Art’s Dry Cleaners) reported that DNAPLs were present or likely to be present in the soil.
- Concentrations of PCE in groundwater varied among the sites and ranged from 11 µg/L to 550
µg/L. Some of the sites (Art’s Dry Cleaners, Wash ‘N Dry Cleaners, and Sunshine Laundry), reported other chlorinated organics in groundwater such as TCE, cis 1,2-DCE, trans 1,2-DCE, 1,1,1-TCA, vinyl chloride, chloromethane, methylene chloride, and chloroform.
- Two sites (ABC Cleaners and Crain Fabric Care Center) reported the presence of the nonhalogenated volatiles, benzene and xylenes
- 1 site (Cox’s One Hour Martinizing) reported that DNAPLs were present or likely to be present in the groundwater

Waste Source:
Waste and wastewater from drycleaning operations

Type/Quantity of Media Treated:
Soil

Purpose/Significance of Application:
Use of soil vapor extraction to remediate soil contaminated with chlorinated solvents at drycleaning sites

Regulatory Requirements/Cleanup Goals:
Soil cleanup target levels were not specified for any of the six sites. For two sites (Cox’s One Hour Martinizing and Sunshine Laundry), the goal of the cleanup was to remove the contamination mass from the source area and stop contaminant migration.

Results:
- At two sites (ABC Cleaners and Wash ‘N Dry Cleaners), SVE failed due to high water levels in the soil
- At Art’s Dry Cleaners, PCE concentrations in the soil were reduced from 1,000 to 0.13 mg/kg
- At Cox’s One Hour Martinizing, PCE concentrations in the soil were reduced from 25,000 to 5 mg/kg, and approximately 170 gallons of PCE were removed after one year of operation. The concentrations showed a rebounded within the first few months of operation, but decreased afterward. The SVE system removal rate peaked at approximately 12.4 lbs per day within first six months of operation, but later decreased to 0.4 lbs per day.
- No information was provided for the other two sites (Crain Fabric Care Center and Sunshine Laundry).

Cost Factors:
- Design and implementation costs for SVE systems were provided for two sites (Cox’s One Hour Martinizing and Art’s Dry Cleaners) and ranged from ranged from $18,000 to $52,000
- O&M costs were provided for two sites - Cox’s One Hour Martinizing - $3,500 for 2 years, and Crain Fabric - $400 for mobilization and $1,140 per visit for laboratory work.
- Cost information was not provided for the other sites.

Description:
SVE was conducted at six drycleaner sites contaminated with chlorinated organic compounds from drycleaning operations. Cleanup goals for soil were not provided for any of the sites. Two sites reported that SVE reduced PCE concentrations in the soil from 25,000 to 5 mg/kg, and from 1,000 to 130 mg/kg, respectively. At two sites, SVE failed due to high water levels in the soil. No information on the results of SVE at the other two sites. Reported design and implementation costs for the SVE systems ranged from $18,000 to $52,000. O&M costs at one site was $3,500 for a period of 2 years.