Pump and Treat, Pump and Treat/Soil Vapor Extraction, or Multi-Phase Extraction At Seven Drycleaner Sites, Various Locations

Site Name:

Multiple (7) Dry Cleaner Sites - P&T/SVE/MPE


- Clotheshanger Cleaners (former), Tallahassee, FL
- Colonial Cleaners, Tompkins County, NY
- Former Norge’s Cleaners, Hays, KS
- Roxy Cleaners, North Greenbush, NY
- Sparta Laundry Basket, Sparta, MI
- Stanton Cleaners Area Groundwater Contamination Site, Great Neck, NY
- Varsity Cleaners, Temple Terrace, FL

Period of

- Clotheshanger Cleaners, April, 2000 (pilot test conducted in February, 2001)
- Colonial Cleaners, P&T, June, 1998
- Former Norge’s Cleaners; SVE - 1997; DPE - 1999
- Roxy Cleaners - Not specified
- Sparta Laundry Basket, June, 1991 to December, 1995
- Stanton Cleaners Area Groundwater Contamination Site, 1998
- Varsity Cleaners - SVE - September to November, 1998; P&T, November, 1999


Full scale

Multi-phase extraction:
- Multi-phase extraction was applied at Clotheshanger Cleaners and Former Norge’s Cleaners.
- At Clotheshanger Cleaners, the treatment system consisted of eleven 4-inch diameter recovery wells and one 2-inch diameter recovery well, installed to depths of 10 to 60 ft bgs. The extracted soil vapors were treated using two 2,000-lb granular activated carbon adsorbers, and the groundwater was treated using a low-profile air stripper.
- At Former Norge’s Cleaners, a DPE system was installed in addition to an existing SVE system. It consisted of four groundwater extraction/SVE wells in conjunction with two of the four existing SVE wells. The groundwater extraction well design pumping rate was 5 gpm, and the extracted groundwater was treated using a shallow tray air-stripper system. The tray stripper was designed to reduce 3,000 µg/L influent PCE concentrations to less than 3 µg/L effluent concentrations.

SVE/Pump and Treat:
- SVE/Pump and Treat was applied at Colonial Cleaners, Varsity Cleaners, Stanton Cleaners, and Roxy Cleaners.
- At Colonial Cleaners and Varsity Cleaners, ex situ SVE was performed. No information was provided on the design of the system at Colonial Cleaners. At Varsity Cleaners, 1,750 cy of soil contaminated with PCE were treated using SVE. The recovered leachate was treated using air strippers and then discharged to an exfiltration gallery. The pump and treat system was only operated during the wet season. Extracted water was treated using two 200-lb granular activated carbon filters.
- No information was provided on the design of the system at Stanton Cleaners.
- At Roxy Cleaners, the SVE system was installed to remediate the on-site source of contamination in the vadose zone. The pump and treat system was designed with three groundwater extraction wells consisting of two on site wells in the source area to exert hydraulic control, and one off site well in the overburden to reduce mass and control groundwater migration.

Pump and Treat
- Pump and Treat was applied at Sparta Laundry Basket. The system treated extracted groundwater using granular activated carbon. The water was then discharged to a nearby creek.

Cleanup Authority:

Varied by site

Chlorinated Solvents

- All seven sites contaminated with PCE and TCE. Concentrations ranged from 3,500 to 13,000 µg/L for PCE, and from 15 to 120 µg/L for TCE.
- Other chlorinated solvents present at some of the sites were cis-1,2-DCE, vinyl chloride, and 1,1,1-TCA
- Four out of the seven sites reported that DNAPLs were present or likely to be present. These were Clotheshanger Cleaners, Varsity Cleaners, Sparta Laundry Basket, and Former Norge’s Cleaners.
- One site (Varsity Cleaners) also reported the presence of BTEX.
Chlorinated Solvents
- No information was provided on contaminants in the soil at Sparta Laundry Basket.
- The other six sites were contaminated with PCE, ranging in concentration from 4.3 to 40,000 µg/kg
- Other chlorinated solvents present at some of the sites were TCE, cis-1,2-DCE

Waste Source:
Waste and wastewater from drycleaning operations

Type/Quantity of Media Treated:
Groundwater and Soil

Purpose/Significance of Application:
Use of multi-phase extraction, pump and treat, and/or SVE to cleanup soil and groundwater contaminated with chlorinated solvents from drycleaning operations.

Regulatory Requirements/Cleanup Goals:
- At four sites, the reported cleanup goals were the drinking water MCL for PCE or TCE. This was less than 0.003 mg/L for Clotheshanger Cleaners and Varsity Cleaners, and less than 0.005 mg/L at Sparta Laundry Basket and Former Norge’s Cleaners.
- At two sites (Clotheshanger Cleaners and Varsity Cleaners), the cleanup goal for DCE was the drinking water MCL (0.07 mg/L).
- At Colonial Cleaners, the cleanup goal for PCE was 5 µg/L.

- At Clotheshanger Cleaners, the cleanup goal was a PCE leachability based on Cleanup Target Levels (CTLs) (0.3 µg/kg).
- At Former Norge’s Cleaners, the cleanup goal for PCE was a Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) RSK level of 180 µg/kg.
- At Colonial Cleaners and Stanton Cleaners, the cleanup goal for soil was 1.4 mg/kg and 1.4 µg/kg, respectively
- At Varsity Cleaners, the cleanup goals were a PCE, TCE, and cis-1,2-DCE leachability standard of 30, 30, and 40 µg/kg, respectively.

- At Clotheshanger Cleaners, the MPE system pumped a total of approximately 26,000 gallons of water. The system influent for groundwater at startup was 1,430 µg/L PCE. During the latest quarterly sampling event in January 2003, the MPE groundwater influent was 210 µg/L PCE; groundwater concentrations in 3 wells were not substantially changed over 2 years of operation.
- At Colonial Cleaners, PCE, TCE, and 1,2-DCE concentrations 22 months after system startup were 98 µg/L, <3 µg/L, and 23 µg/L, respectively. These concentrations indicate that the goal for TCE was met, but not for PCE or DCE.
- At Varsity Cleaners, the maximum initial influent PCE concentration for the pump and treat system was 0.66 mg/L. During the most recent operation period, the maximum influent PCE concentration was reduced to 0.44 mg/L, indicating that the cleanup goal had not been met.
- At Roxy Cleaners, the pump and treat system reduced levels of contamination by approximately 50% over a period of three years. At the end of this period, the concentrations were still two orders of magnitude above the groundwater standards.
- At Sparta Laundry Basket, the pump and treat system treated approximately 47 million gallons of water. PCE concentrations in water samples collected from one monitoring well dropped from 2.3 mg/L to 0.18 mg/L; TCE concentrations were reduced from 0.023 mg/L to 0.015 mg/L; and 1,1,1-TCA concentrations were reduced from 0.019 mg/L to non-detect. These concentrations indicate that the cleanup goal for 1,1,1-TCA was met, but not the goals for PCE or TCE.
- At Former Norge’s Cleaners, there was a 95% reduction of PCE in groundwater monitoring wells downgradient of the remediation system. Some cross-gradient wells remained contaminated at original levels indicating the continued presence of source area contamination. The SVE system removed more than 3,000 lbs of VOCs. The shallow tray air stripper reduced 3,300 µg/L influent concentrations to less than 3 µg/L, removing more than 28 lbs of VOCs from the groundwater run through the tray stripper

- At Colonial Cleaners, approximately 230 tons of contaminated soil was removed for ex situ treatment.
- At Stanton Cleaners, the SVE system removed approximately 16,000 lbs of PCE.
- At Roxy Cleaners, the SVE system reduced vadose zone PCE contamination levels to 0.425 µg/kg, meeting the regulatory goal.

Cost Factors:
Reported design and implementation costs:
- Clotheshanger Cleaners - $310,500
- Varsity Cleaners - soil excavation and treatment - $387,300; remedial system design and construction: $111,400
- Stanton Cleaners - $1,300,000 for implementation and operation of SVE system
- Roxy Cleaners - $1,690,000
- Former Norge’s Cleaners - SVE - $28,550; DPE - $69,835
- Information on cost was not provided for Colonial Cleaners and Sparta Laundry Basket.

Reported O&M costs:
- Clotheshanger Cleaners - $30,000
- Stanton Cleaners - $450,000 for two years; $225,000 for the next 18 years
- Roxy Cleaners - $177,000
- Former Norge’s Cleaners - SVE only - $9,573 over a period of 7 months; DPE - $45,250 over a period of 38 months.

Multi-phase extraction was conducted at two drycleaner sites, SVE/pump and treat at four drycleaner sites, and pump and treat only at one drycleaner site to remediate soil and groundwater contaminated with chlorinated solvents. The amount of contaminant removed from the subsurface varied by site, with as much as 16,000 pounds of PCE removed from the soil at Stanton Cleaners.