In Situ Chemical Oxidation Using Hydrogen Peroxide at Four Dry Cleaner Sites ()

Site Name:

Multiple (4) Dry Cleaner Sites - In Situ Chemical Oxidation

Location:

- Daisy Fresh: College Park, Georgia
- Former Alpine Cleaners: Friendswood, Texas
- Park Avenue Cleaners: Richardson, Texas
- Spin City: Plano, Texas

Period of
Operation:

- Daisy Fresh: Phase I pilot test - April 8, 2003 and April 22, 2003) September 11, 2002; Phase II pilot test - August 25, 2003 and September 25, 2003
- Alpine: 1999
- Park Avenue: September 2000
- Spin City: September 2000

Cleanup
Type:

Field demonstration - Daisy Fresh
Full scale - Alpine, Park Avenue, and Spin City

Technology:
In Situ Chemical Oxidation
Daisy Fresh: Other technologies used - monitored natural attenuation, enhanced fluid recovery.
- ISOTEC’s chemical oxidation process was used
- Phase I - 46 direct push (DP) points with multiple injection intervals and 12 injections wells; Phase II - 54,190 gallons of ISOTEC reagents injected
Alpine:
- Initially, an aqueous solution of ferrous sulfate and hydrochloric acid was injected.
- This was followed by hydrochloric acid and finally by a 35% solution of hydrogen peroxide; In August and September of 2001, a total of 135 gallons of a 5.5% solution of potassium permanganate was injected at the site.
Park Avenue:
- 550 gallons of a biodegradable surfactant was injected at each injection point
- 310 gallons of a proprietary catalyst solution was injected at each point
- A mixture of a proprietary acid (total of 270 gallons) and a hydrogen peroxide solution (total of 640 gallons) was injected
Spin City:
- 550 gallons of a biodegradable surfactant was injected at each injection point
- 116 gallons of a proprietary catalyst solution was injected at each point
- A mixture of a proprietary acid (total of 295 gallons) and a hydrogen peroxide solution (total of 515 gallons) was injected

Cleanup Authority:
State

Contacts: Varied by site

Contaminants:
Chlorinated Solvents
Daisy Fresh:
(Groundwater) Chloroform - 33 µg/l; cis-1,2-DCE - 1,600 µg/l; PCE - 20,000 µg/l; TCE - 2,300 µg/l; vinyl chloride - 18 µg/l; xylenes - 16 µg/l
(Soil) 1,1-DCE - 11 µg/kg; 1,2-DCE - 47 µg/kg; benzene - 8µg/kg; chloroform - 44 µg/kg; cis-1,2-DCE - 12,600 µg/kg; naphthalene - 16 µg/kg; PCE - 219,000 µg/kg; TCE - 560,000 µg/kg; vinyl chloride - 600 µg/kg; xylenes - 87 µg/kg

Alpine: 1,1-DCE - 5.9 µg/l; cis-1,2-DCE - 3,100 µg/l; PCE - 2,940 µg/l; TCE - 1,400 µg/l; vinyl chloride - 300 µg/l. Contaminant concentrations in soil were below cleanup standards.

Park Avenue: (Groundwater) cis-1,2-DCE - 56 µg/l; PCE - 470 µg/l; trans-1,2-DCE - 4 µg/l; TCE - 150 µg/l; xylenes - 1 µg/l. (Soil) cis-1,2-DCE- 56 µg/kg; PCE - 44,590 µg/kg; TCE - 940 µg/kg; chlorobenzene - 19 µg/kg

Spin City: (Groundwater) cis-1,2-DCE - 900 µg/l; PCE - 2,900 µg/l; trans-1,2-DCE - 140 µg/kg; TCE - 320µg/l. (Soil) cis-1,2-DCE - 130 µg/kg; PCE - 47,350 µg/kg; trans-1,2-DCE - 140 µg/kg; TCE - 1,500 µg/kg

Waste Source:
Waste and wastewater from drycleaning operations

Type/Quantity of Media Treated:
- Daisy Fresh: Soil, groundwater
- Alpine: Groundwater
- Park Avenue: Soil, groundwater
- Spin City: Soil, groundwater; volume of treated soil: 172 cubic yards; groundwater treatment area: approximately 0.74 acres

Purpose/Significance of Application:
Use of in situ oxidation technologies for remediation of chlorinated solvents in groundwater at drycleaner facilities

Regulatory Requirements/Cleanup Goals:
Daisy Fresh:
- Groundwater: PCE and TCE - 5 µg/l; VC - 2 µg/l; Cis-1,2 DCE - 156 µg/l. Soil: PCE and TCE - 0.5 mg/kg; VC - 0.044 mg/kg; Cis-1,2-DCE - 78.2 mg/kg
Alpine:
- PCE - 5 µg/l; TCE - 5 µg/l; cis 1,2-DCE - 70 µg/l; vinyl chloride - 2 µg/l
Park Avenue:
- Groundwater: PCE - 500 µg/l; TCE - 500 µg/l. Soil: PCE -5,000 µg/kg; TCE - 5,000 µg/kg
Spin City:
- Groundwater: PCE - 500 µg/l. Soil: PCE - 500 µg/kg; TCE - 500 µg/kg

Results:
Daisy Fresh:
- Phase I - VOCs in two soil samples reduced from 105 µg/kg and 87 µg/kg to non-detect. Concentrations of VOCs in groundwater decreased by 83%
- Phase II - average VOC concentrations decreased by 89% from baseline conditions measured in April 2003.
- In two wells, concentrations of VOCs decreased at first and then increased. This was attributed to the desorption of solvents from the soil.
Alpine:
- 33% reduction in contaminant concentrations
Park Avenue:
- Soil contaminant concentrations reduced by 99% and groundwater concentrations reduced by 95-100%.
Spin City:
- Contaminant concentrations reduced by 56 to 99.9% in soils and by 83 to 100% in groundwater.

Cost Factors:
No cost data available

Description:
In situ chemical oxidation was conducted at four drycleaner sites contaminated with chlorinated solvents from drycleaning operations, with TCE and PCE as the primary contaminants in groundwater. The concentration of PCE and TCE varied between the two sites, ranging from 470 to 20,000 µg/L for PCE, and 150 to 2,300 µg/L for TCE. The remediation involved in situ chemical oxidation using hydrogen peroxide at full-scale at three sites and at pilot-scale at one site (Daisy Fresh).

Contaminant concentrations at all four sites were reduced following treatment. The percentage reduction ranged from 33 to 100 percent. At one site (Daisy Fresh), concentrations of VOCs decreased at first and then increased in two wells. This was attributed to the desorption of solvents from the soil. Cost data were not provided for any of the projects. At several of the sites, monitored natural attenuation will continue to be evaluated as a remediation technology following the application of in situ chemical oxidation.