**MODMAN**
– MODMAN is a FORTRAN computer program developed by GeoTrans, Inc. that adds
optimization capability to the USGS finite-difference model for groundwater flow
simulation in three dimensions, called MODFLOW96. The optimal solution maximizes or
minimizes a user-defined objective function and satisfies all user-defined
constraints.

**MODOFC**
– MODOFC (MODFLOW Optimal Flow Control) is a FORTRAN computer program which
determines optimal pumping solutions for groundwater flow control problems. MODOFC
couples the USGS MODFLOW simulation program with optimization algorithms. MODOFC was
developed by David P. Ahlfeld of the University of Massachusetts.

**MODFLIP** – MODFLIP from Subterranean Research, Inc. is
applicable to steady flow optimization, linear programming, and linear mixed-binary
programming problems. MODFLIP couples the popular MODFLOW groundwater simulation
program with linear and mixed integer programming optimization.

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**Optimal
Time-Varying Pumping Rates for Groundwater Remediation: Application of Constrained
Optimal Control Theory**

- Chang, L.-C., C.A. Shoemaker, and P.L.-F. Liu, 1992, Water Resources Research,
28(12), pp. 3157-3174.

**
Analysis of Uncertainty in Optimal Groundwater Contaminant Capture Design**

- Tiedeman, C. and S.M. Gorelick, 1993, Water Resources Research, 29(7), 2139-2153.

**Dynamic
Programming**

- Long-Term Groundwater Management by A MODFLOW Based Dynamic Optimization Tool
– Sun, M., and C. Zheng, 1999, Journal of American Water Resources
Association, 35(1), pp.99-111