|Use:||X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry is a non-destructive, analytical method used primarily to detect heavy metals in soil/solids samples.|
XRF spectrometry uses primarily x-rays to irradiate a sample, which causes elements in the sample to emit secondary radiation of a characteristic wavelength. Two basic types of detectors are used to detect and analyze the secondary radiation:
The elements in the sample are identified by the wavelengths of the emitted x-rays while the concentrations of the elements are determined by the intensity of the x-rays. Sample preparation is minimal compared to conventional analytical techniques. XRF spectrometry allows for simultaneous determination of several elements. Portable energy-dispersive XRF instruments are now available, and the more accurate wave length XRF instruments can be used in mobile laboratories. The portable energy-dispersive XRF instruments can be used for scanning the ground surface to determine the prescence of metals without collecting a sample for analysis.
|Selectivity:||Technique measures the contaminant directly.|
|Susceptibility to Interference:||Low.|
|Detection Limits :||10-100 ppm (soil); 0.5-10 ppm (water). Detection limits range from 20 - 1,000 ppm depending on vendor, unit type, and element analyzed. For portable instruments, detection limits typically are an order of magnitude higher than ICP-AES.|
|Turnaround Time per Sample:||Minutes.|
|Screen/Identify||Characterize Concentration/Extent||Cleanup Performance||Long-Term Monitoring|
|Quantitative Data Capability:||Produces quantitative data.|
|Technology Status:||Commercially available and routinely used field techonology.|
|Certification/Verification:||Technology has participated in CalEPA certification and/or CSCT verification program.|
|Relative Cost per Analysis:||Least expensive.|
ASTM Standards/EPA Methods:
No applicable ASTM standards or EPA methods are cited for this technology.
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