Remediation Technology Assessment Reports
Analysis of remedial technologies based on their use at multiple hazardous waste cleanup sites provides information useful to site managers and others involved in remedy selection and implementation. The 101 reports listed below, prepared by Federal agencies and the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council (ITRC), contain information about the application of a specific technology or about a common contaminant, and provide summary findings based on practical field experience. The reports were identified using the following criteria:
- Address treatment or containment technologies (full-scale projects or large demonstrations)
- Based on assessment of performance at multiple sites
- Published recently (within past 10 years)
- Provide guidelines for technology selection or application at specific sites or design recommendations
- Do not consist solely of presumptive remedies, technology descriptions, literature surveys, application surveys, or regulatory assessments
1,4-DioxaneTreatment Technologies for 1,4-Dioxane: Fundamentals and Field Applications
This report documents the occurrences and properties of 1,4-dioxane and provides descriptions of currently available remediation technologies for 1,4-dioxane. The report primarily focuses on the treatment of 1,4-dioxane in contaminated groundwater. Site-specific treatment information is provided as well as information on the most promising technologies that can treat 1,4-dioxane. Also included is an overview of topics which discuss the compound's physical and chemical properties, treatability, and relevant policies and guidance.
Air SpargingCost and Performance Report Multi-Site In Situ Air Sparging (Navy) (2005) Recommended!
The objective of the project discussed in this report was to implement the Air Sparging Design Paradigm at a number of existing air sparging sites in order to determine whether the Paradigm was effective for evaluating air distribution and whether other design guidelines were valid. The Paradigm provides details on air sparging principles; site characterization; pilot testing; system design, installation, and operation; and system monitoring. Another goal of the project was to modify the Paradigm as necessary based on results obtained from 10 field sites. Using the Paradigm to evaluate and design air sparging systems should result in applications that are more cost-effective and have better performance.
Air Sparging Design Paradigm (ESTCP) (2002)
Design guidance that recognizes inherent complexities involved in operating an air sparging system. Core of paradigm is the approach recommended for air sparging pilot studies, full-scale design, and diagnostic testing.
Air Sparging: Technology Transfer and Multi-Site Evaluation (ESTCP) (2002)
Presents an evaluation of the Air Sparging Design Paradigm (ESTCP 2002) implemented at 10 field sites. The goal of the study was to determine the effectiveness of the Paradigm and modify it as necessary based on the results of the evaluation.
Engineering and Design: In Situ Air Sparging (USACE) (1997)
Provides guidance for evaluation of feasibility and applicability of in situ air sparging for remediation of contaminated groundwater and soil. As a secondary objective, describes design and operational considerations for in situ air sparging systems.
ArsenicArsenic Treatment Technologies for Soil, Waste, and Water (EPA) (2002)
Contains current information on the treatment technologies for wastes and environmental media containing arsenic. Summarizes information on 13 technologies used to treat arsenic, identifies sites and facilities where arsenic treatment has been used, and provides references to more detailed arsenic treatment information.
Arsenic Treatment Technology Design Manual for Small Systems (EPA) (2002)
Serves as a resource for small municipal drinking water systems that may be affected by changes in arsenic regulations. It contains background information on the arsenic rule, descriptions for established arsenic mitigation strategies, considerations required to make an informed treatment method selection, and information to quickly estimate the planning-level costs for the selected treatment process.
Proven Alternatives for Aboveground Treatment of Arsenic in Groundwater (EPA) (2002)
Identifies and summarizes experiences with proven aboveground treatment alternatives for arsenic in groundwater, and provides information on their relative effectiveness and cost. The four technologies included in the report are precipitation/coprecipitation, adsorption, ion exchange, and membrane filtration.
BiofuelsBiofuels: Release Prevention, Environmental Behavior, and Remediation (2011) Newly Posted!
This technical/regulatory guidance report was prepared by the Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council. The intended audience is state regulators, potentially responsible parties, stakeholders, and contractors. This guidance was developed using a multimedia evaluation of air, water, and land. The report also provides an overview on biofuels, potential release scenarios, release prevention procedures, information on fate and transport of biofuels into the environment, site characterization concerns including sampling and analytical methods, response strategies including risk assessment, and case studies. The document also addresses stakeholder concerns. Recommendations are also provided on suitable response actions in the event of a biofuel release.
BioremediationPrinciples and Practices of Enhanced Anaerobic Bioremediation of Chlorinated Solvents (ESTCP and DoD) (2004) Recommended!
This report contains information that can help project managers (1) make more informed decisions about enhanced bioremediation as a remedial alternative, (2) select specific enhanced bioremediation approaches that are suitable for achieving cleanup goals, and (3) track bioremediation cost and performance. Although this process has been shown to enhance the destruction of chlorinated solvents in situ at certain sites, there are conditions that may limit or even preclude its use. The report can help project managers identify conditions under which the technology may not be successfully applied.
Loading Rate and Impacts of Substrate Delivery for Enhanced Anaerobic Bioremediation (2010)
This cost and performance report was prepared by the Environmental Security Technology Certification Program of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD). The report describes 15 case studies performed across the Unites States to evaluate different approaches to determining substrate loading rates and the impacts of substrate delivery for enhanced in situ anaerobic bioremediation. Both soluble, slow-release viscous fluid, and solid phase substrate types were assessed at the sites. Sites were evaluated to determine the following: ability to uniformly distribute the substrate, if optimal geochemical conditions were achieved, remediation effectiveness, impacts to secondary water quality and hydraulic conductivity, and substrate persistence and long-term effectiveness. To assist these evaluations, a substrate estimating tool was used to screen site conditions that may impact substrate delivery and utilization. The report summarizes the results of each site evaluation and includes recommendations for determining substrate requirements and for designing substrate amendments. The report also includes a detailed description of the technology, the demonstration site selection, evaluation methods, cost assessment, and implementation issues.
Technical Protocol for Enhanced Anaerobic Bioremediation using Permeable Mulch Biowalls and Bioreactors (2008)
This document prepared by the Air Force Center for Engineering and the Environment (AFCEE), describes the scientific and technical basis for use of permeable mulch biowalls and in situ bioreactors for enhanced in situ anaerobic bioremediation of chlorinated solvents, perchlorate, and explosives in groundwater. This document is intended to provide restoration project managers (RPMs) and their contractors with the information necessary to make informed decisions about the design and implementation of this technology. The report provides guidance on technology selection, site screening, design criteria, installation methods, performance monitoring, and data interpretation for the various engineered approaches currently being used. Since site conditions dictate the effectiveness and type of biowall or bioreactor, this protocol is intended to assist the practitioner in recognizing potential biowall/bioreactor sites where the probability of success is high, and selecting specific approaches that are suitable for achieving remedial goals and performance objectives. The report includes three case studies which illustrate the design and implementation of these anaerobic bioremediation techniques and are listed below.
- Bioremediation of Chlorinated Solvents Using a Permeable Mulch Biowall at the Ash Landfill Site, Seneca Army Depot Activity, New York
- Permeable Mulch Biowall at Landfill 3, Operable Unit 1, Altus Air Force Base, Oklahoma
- Demonstration of a Recirculation Bioreactor at Landfill 3, Altus Air Force Base, Oklahoma
The Use of Soil Amendments for Remediation, Revitalization, and Reuse (2007)
This report prepared by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) provides information for the application of soil amendments at Superfund sites and various other sites. Use of soil amendments is a cost effective in situ process for remediation, revitalization, and reuse of many types of disturbed and contaminated landscapes. The addition of amendments restores soil quality by balancing pH, adding organic matter, increasing water holding capacity, re-establishing microbial communities, and alleviating compaction. Some of the commonly used amendments include municipal biosolids, animal manures and litters, sugar beet lime, wood ash, coal combustion products such as fly ash, log yard waste, neutralizing lime products, composted biosolids, and a variety of composted agricultural byproducts, as well as traditional agricultural fertilizers. The report provides an overview of issues related to soil amendments, types of problems addressed by soil amendments, types of sites where soil amendments can be used, types of soil amendments, logistics, permitting and regulations pertaining to the use of soil amendments, and sampling and monitoring of amended sites.
Characterization, Design, Construction, and Monitoring of Mitigation Wetlands (ITRC) (2005)
This guidance report serves as a comprehensive technical guide for regulators, environmental professionals, or permittees for characterizing, designing, constructing, and monitoring of compensatory mitigation wetlands. The report provides example checklists for evaluating and documenting habitat health and measuring other performance criteria for mitigation wetlands. A unique flow diagram is provided that illustrates decision points in the overall mitigation wetlands process.
Overview of In Situ Bioremediation of Chlorinated Ethene DNAPL Source Zones (ITRC) (2005)
This report provides an overview of issues to consider when selecting and designing an in-situ bioremediation (ISB) system for remediation of chlorinated ethene dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) source zones. The report provided an overview of current ISB systems, measurements and procedures that can be utilized to evaluate the performance of an ISB system, and an analysis of system implementation.
Reductive Anaerobic Biological In Situ Treatment Technology Treatability Test Interim Report (ESTCP) (2001)
Contains site-specific information that can be used to develop and validate a comprehensive approach for conducting a treatability test to determine potential for applying reductive anaerobic biological in situ treatment technology (RABITT) at any specific site.
Technology Status Review: Bioremediation of Dinitrotoluene (ESTCP) (2001)
Summarizes the latest information on bioremediation technologies that exploit the ability of aerobic bacteria to mineralize 2,4- and 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT, 2,6-DNT) to yield energy, harmless minerals, and biomass.
Engineered Approaches to In Situ Bioremediation of Chlorinated Solvents: Fundamentals and Field Applications (EPA) (2000)
Overview of in situ bioremediation to remediate chlorinated solvents in contaminated soil and groundwater. Describes degradation mechanisms for chlorinated solvents, enhancements of mechanisms by addition of various materials and chemicals, design approaches, and factors to consider when selecting and using the technology. Summary of treatment vendors and nine case studies of field applications also included.
Application Guide for Bioslurping - Volume I. (Navy) (1998)
Volume I contains principles and practices of bioslurping to assist preliminary decision making.
Application Guide for Bioslurping - Volume II. (Navy) (1998)
Volume II contains a detailed description of the bioslurper system, testing procedures, system design, installation, operation, monitoring, and approach for site closure.
Monitoring and Assessment of In Situ Biocontainment of Petroleum-Contaminated Groundwater Plumes. (EPA) (1998)
A decision framework to guide users in data collection and interpretation, and decision-making efforts to evaluate nature and potential extent of intrinsic plume bioattenuation taking place under a given set of site conditions.
Technical and Regulatory Requirements for Enhanced In Situ Bioremediation of Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater (ITRC) (1998)
Provides technical and regulatory requirements for enhanced in situ bioremediation (EISB) of chlorinated solvents in groundwater. The report provides information on the design of the EISB systems, amendments that may be added, significant regulatory challenges facing EISB systems, and the components of an EISB project. The components include thorough initial site assessment, a laboratory treatability test, field pilot design, field pilot test, and scale-up design.
Biopile Design and Construction Manual (NFESC) (1996)
Details selection procedures and design and construction steps for implementing the biopile technology, which is a method for ex situ treatment of soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. Manual provides general overview of the biopile technology, followed by detailed descriptions of selection criteria, regulatory issues, design parameters, and construction procedures.
Principles and Practices of Bioventing. Volume I (EPA; equivalent to U.S. Air Force document AL/EQ-TR-1995-0037) (1995)
Discusses results from bioventing research and development efforts, and from pilot-scale bioventing systems. Volume I describes basic principles of bioventing.
Principles and Practices of Bioventing. Volume II (AFCEE) (1995)
Discusses results from bioventing research and development efforts, and from pilot-scale bioventing systems. Volume II focuses on bioventing design and process monitoring.
A Systematic Approach to In Situ Bioremediation in Groundwater, Including Decision Trees for In Situ Bioremediation of Nitrates, Carbon Tetrachloride, and Perchlorate (ITRC)
Provides guidance for the systematic characterization, evaluation, and appropriate design and testing of in situ bioremediation for any biotreatable contaminant. It serves as guidance for regulators, consultants, responsible parties, and stakeholders when an in situ bioremediation technology is considered.
Protocol for In Situ Bioremediation of Chlorinated Solvents Using Edible Oil
This document prepared by Air Force Center for Engineering and Environment (AFCEE) provides information and scientific background for the use of pure edible oil and edible oil emulsions to provide a long-lasting organic substrate for enhanced in situ anaerobic bioremediation of chlorinated solvents. The report is an information source and tool for base managers and project leaders and assists in designing an edible oil system, and evaluating and optimizing remedial performance over time. The document describes 1) development of the edible oil process and its effectiveness for stimulating biodegradation of chlorinated solvents, 2) site conditions that should be evaluated when considering the use of the edible oil process, 3) various configurations that can be applied, 4) hydrogeological and engineering considerations for developing an injection layout, 5) methods for applying the substrate to the subsurface, 6) methods to measure and evaluate multiple lines of contaminant, biogeochemical, and microbial parameters, and 7) methods to evaluate and optimize remedial performance over time. Case studies are also provided detailing with data, techniques, and performance results from two AFCEE Technology Transfer field test sites for chlorinated ethenes, and one application for chlorinated ethenes at an industrial site.
Containment – Barrier WallsEvaluation of Subsurface Engineered Barriers at Waste Sites (EPA) (1998) Recommended!
The objective of the study discussed in this report was to address the performance of subsurface engineered barriers installed throughout the United States over the previous 20 years to remediate hazardous waste sites and facilities. The study focused on vertical barriers; evaluation of caps was a secondary objective. The overall approach to the study was to assemble existing performance monitoring results from a number of sites and examine those results in light of remedial objectives and factors that may influence barrier performance. The factors considered included barrier design, construction quality assurance and quality control; types of monitoring programs; and operation and maintenance efforts. Although the report was published in 1998, the information it contains is still relevant and useful for construction of subsurface engineered barriers.
Design of Sheet Pile Walls (USACE) (1994)
Provides information on foundation exploration and testing procedures, analysis techniques, allowable criteria, design procedures, and construction consideration for selection, design, and installation of sheet pile walls.
Containment – CapsLandfill Off-Gas Collection and Treatment Systems (2008)
This U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) engineering and design manual establishes criteria and guidance for landfill off-gas collection and treatment systems. It provides information about the design of systems to monitor, collect, transport, and treat off-gas from municipal, industrial, and hazardous waste landfills. This manual describes various landfill gas (LFG) emission control techniques and presents design procedures relative to each. The following topics are included: reasons for LRG control, theory of LFG emissions, LFG and condensate characteristics, estimation of LFG production, LFG collection and treatment design considerations, operation and maintenance requirements, and regulatory requirements.
Technology Overview Using Case Studies of Alternative Landfill Technologies and Associated Regulatory Topics (ITRC) (2003)
Presents examples of flexibility used in regulatory frameworks for approving alternative landfill cover designs, current research information about the use of alternative covers, and examples of approved designs and constructed covers.
Evaluating, Optimizing, or Ending Post-Closure Care at Municipal Solid Waste Landfills Based on Site-Specific Data Evaluations
This Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council (ITRC) guidance documents provides information on evaluating the conditions of a closed municipal solid waste landfill, the waste contained within it, and relevant procedures to manage, reduce, or potentially end post-closure care (PCC) activities based on reduced threats to human health and the environment. The report provides methods for evaluating post-closure care performance based on evaluations of leachate, landfill gas, groundwater, and the final cap design. The outcome of these evaluations can lead to an extension or reduction in the duration of PCC. Example case studies are provided detailing the implementation of the document's post-closure care evaluation methodology.
Dense Nonaqueous-Phase LiquidsStrategies for Monitoring the Performance of DNAPL Source Zone Remedies (ITRC) (2004) Recommended!
The purpose of this report is to serve as a tool to educate regulators and stakeholders about performance monitoring of various in situ technologies for treating DNAPLs. The document discusses issues related to DNAPLs, including the challenges of accurately characterizing DNAPL sites, health and safety issues, and regulatory concerns. The document also describes methods for quantifying the performance of a treatment technology and ways to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of a remedial action in attaining remediation objectives. Case studies are presented that highlight the various performance assessment approaches used in recent DNAPL source zone treatment projects as well as the remedial goals and objectives, performance monitoring and verification activities, and lessons learned.
Technical and Regulatory Guidance for Integrated DNAPL Site Strategy (2011) Newly Posted!
This Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council document provides regulators, site managers, and remediation engineers with guidance on developing site management strategies for sites contaminated with chlorinated solvents and dense, nonaqueous-phase liquids. This document describes how to develop conceptual site models, presents how to select remedial objectives, includes summaries on current treatment technologies, discusses how to develop site specific monitoring approaches, and provides insight on how to reevaluate remediation strategies when remedial objectives are not being fulfilled.
In Situ Bioremediation of Chlorinated Ethene: DNAPL Source Zones (2008)
This Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council (ITRC) guidance document provides the regulatory community, stakeholders, and practitioners with a systematic understanding of the general steps that can used to objectively assess, design, monitor, and optimize in situ bioremediation (ISB) of chlorinated ethene dense nonaqueous-phase liquid (DNAPL) source zones. The guidance focuses on source zones in the saturated subsurface, where the DNAPL acts as a reservoir that sustains a contaminant plume in the groundwater. The ITRC Bioremediation of DNAPLs Team concluded that ISB of DNAPLs source zones is a viable technology and can be an effective component of a treatment plan for chlorinated ethene source zones. It can either serve as a sole remedy or as one component of a larger remedy, depending on the site.
The objective of the guidance is to provide adequate technology background on the general and key aspects of ISB for treatment of chlorinated ethene DNAPL source zones. It is not intended to be step-by-step instructions for remedial designs but rather, guidance that describes technology-specific considerations for application of ISB to source zones. This guidance provides the reader with a description of the ISB technology, including goals set for ISB of DNAPL source zones and its advantages and limitations. Other topics include information related to site characterization requirements, application and design criteria, process monitoring, process optimization, and regulatory issues. The document also references case studies and includes a list of corresponding abstracts that are also available in the previously completed project report, In Situ Bioremediation of Chlorinated Ethene DNAPL Source Zones: Case Studies.
Technical and Regulatory Guidance for Surfactant/Cosolvent Flushing of DNAPL Source Zones (ITRC) (2003)
A technical and regulatory guide for those involved in selecting and implementing surfactant/cosolvent flushing of DNAPLs as a remedial action. Describes the technology and discusses the major factors that need to be addressed to select and evaluate design and implementation work plans for surfactant and cosolvent flushing of DNAPLs.
Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPLs): Review of Emerging Characterization and Remediation Technologies (ITRC) (2000)
Review of three general types of emerging DNAPL characterization technologies—including geophysical, cone penetrometer, and in situ tracers—and two categories of emerging DNAPL remediation technologies—thermal enhanced extraction and in situ chemical oxidation.
FlushingSurfactant-Enhanced Aquifer Remediation (SEAR) Implementation Manual (Navy) (2003)
An implementation manual designed to familiarize Remedial Project Managers, engineers, and scientists affiliated with environmental remediation projects on the major tasks and planning parameters involved with implementing an in situ surfactant flood or surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR) project to remove DNAPLs.
AATDF Technology Practices Manual for Surfactants and Cosolvents (TR-97-2) (DoD) (1997)
A report coauthored by the Advanced Applied Technology Development Facility (AATDF) that assists decision makers with evaluation and potential application of surfactant/cosolvent flushing for remediation of subsurface contamination. Provides basic understanding of technologies, their applicability and limitations, and understanding of factors to be considered when implementing projects.
Geostatistical EvaluationDemonstration and Validation of the Geostatistical Temporal-Spatial Algorithm (GTS) for Optimization of Long-Term Monitoring (LTM) of Groundwater at Military and Government Sites (2010) Newly Posted!
This cost and performance report was prepared by the Environmental Security Technology Certification Program of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD). The report reviews the performance of Geostatistical Temporal-Spatial (GTS) groundwater optimization software developed by MacStat Consulting and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) for the Air Force Center for Engineering and the Environment (AFCEE). The software was demonstrated at three sites: the Air Force Plant 44 Site in Tucson, Arizona, the Former Nebraska Ordnance Plant Site in Mead, Nebraska, and the Fernald United States Department of Energy Site in Ross, Ohio. The report summarizes the effectiveness of the software as an optimization tool in evaluating spatial and temporal redundancies at the demonstrations sites as well as the softwares ability in providing reproducible results, its effectiveness in flagging anomalous measurements, its ability to identify sampling network inadequacies, and its recommendations on coordinate locations regarding the placement of new wells to fill network inadequacies. The report also includes a description of the technology, identifies how sites were selected for the demonstration, overviews evaluation methods, provides cost assessment methods and results, and presents implementation issues associated with use of the software.
In Situ Chemical OxidationTechnical and Regulatory Guidance for In Situ Chemical Oxidation of Contaminated Soil and Groundwater — Second Edition (ITRC) (2005) Recommended!
This document outlines the technical and regulatory requirements associated with in situ chemical oxidation. The primary oxidants addressed are hydrogen peroxide, potassium and sodium permanganate, sodium persulfate, and ozone. The document should prove useful to regulators, stakeholders, consultants, and technology implementers. It is divided into sections that provide a technology overview and discuss its applicability, remedial investigations, safety concerns, regulatory concerns, injection design, monitoring, stakeholder concerns, and case studies.
Cost and Performance Report for Persulfate Treatability Studies (2010) Newly Posted!
This cost and performance report was prepared by the Navy Facilities Engineering Command. This report evaluated the effectiveness of in-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) treatment at four sites. A persulfate reagent was introduced at four field demonstration sites for the in situ remediation of chlorinated volatile compounds (CVOCs), dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs), 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB), trichloroethylene (TCE), perchloroethylene (PCE), dichloroethylene (DCE), and vinyl chloride (VC) contaminated groundwater. Performance objectives for the demonstrations were to further develop and evaluate the use of persulfate as an in-situ reagent to reduce contaminant concentrations, evaluate the use of persulfate as part of an in-situ source treatment to reduce contaminant concentrations involving DNAPLs, and evaluate whether the use of persulfate shortens the time needed to obtain site closure. A review of the four demonstration sites where persulfate ISCO technologies were applied was conducted to gather data on geological conditions, contaminants treated, operating conditions, and system performance. The report summarizes the results of the data collection and evaluation and provides findings that can be used by program managers who are considering persulfate in ISCO remediation technologies. The report also includes descriptions of the technologies, overviews evaluation methods, provides cost assessment methods and results, and presents implementation issues associated with the technologies.
Technical and Regulatory Guidance for In Situ Chemical Oxidation of Contaminated Soil and Groundwater. June (ITRC) (2001)
Includes descriptions of three commonly used chemical oxidants and eight case studies, as well as four examples of state regulatory applications.
Technology Status Review: In Situ Oxidation (ESTCP) (1999)
Survey of sites where in situ oxidation has been used, to help establish basis for selecting and designing the technology; assess costs and performance of the technology at specific sites; assess reasons for success or failure of application; and provide guidance on use of technology, including data requirements.
In-Well Air StrippingGroundwater Circulating Well Technology Assessment (ESTCP) (1999)
Survey of groundwater circulating well technology based on demonstrations at a number of federal and public sites. Documents successes and shortcomings of system performance. Assists in developing guidelines for use of technology and makes recommendations for additional data requirements.
Field Applications of In Situ Remediation Technologies: Groundwater Circulation Wells (EPA) (1998)
Documents recent pilot demonstrations and full-scale applications that either treat soil and groundwater in situ, or increase the solubility and mobility of contaminants to improve their removal by other remediation technologies.
Incineration (on-site)On-Site Incineration: Overview of Superfund Operating Experience (EPA) (1998)
Summarizes 15 case studies on operating experience for completed projects, provides technology descriptions, and makes general observations based on individual operations.
Light Nonaqueous-Phase Liquids (LNAPLs)Evaluating LNAPL Remedial Technologies for Achieving Project Goals (2009)
This guidance, prepared by the Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council (ITRC), provides a framework to help stakeholders select the best-suited remedial technology for an LNAPL contaminated site based on site-specific conditions and remedial objectives. This guidance discusses regulatory practices which may foster better completion of LNAPL remediation, including developing an adequate LNAPL conceptual site model to guide the setting of LNAPL remedial objectives and to identify LNAPL technologies best suited to achieve those objectives. It details the remedial technology screening process and identifies the minimum data requirements and critical considerations for evaluating an LNAPL remedial technology for site application. In addition, the guidance describes advantages and limitations of seventeen LNAPL remedial technologies ranging from conventional to innovative technologies.
Evaluating Natural Source Zone Depletion at Sites with LNAPL (2009)
This report, prepared by the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council (ITRC), addresses natural source zone depletion (NSZD) as a remedial option, describes NSZD processes, evaluates source zone depletion rates, and examines the future for NSZD. NSZD refers to areas where quantities of chemicals are being naturally lost from the source zone at some rate due to volatilization, dissolution, biodegradation, and sorption. Light nonaqueous-phase liquids (LNAPLs) are immiscible with water and when released to the subsurface, LNAPLs can migrate downward and laterally to form "source zones." NSZD is one of a spectrum of remediation options that can be evaluated when identifying remedial options to address LNAPLs at a site. This report addresses the technical process for evaluating NSZD and provides mathematical equations that may be useful for predicting the fate of the source zones. This technical overview document is a companion to the guidance document, Evaluating LNAPL Remedial Technologies for Achieving Project Goals.
MercuryTreatment Technologies For Mercury in Soil, Waste, and Water
This report contains information on the availability, performance, and cost of eight technologies for the treatment of mercury in soil, waste, and water. It describes the theory, design, and operation of the technologies; provides information on commercial availability and use; and includes site-specific data on performance and cost, where available. This information can help managers at sites with mercury-contaminated media and generators of mercury-contaminated waste and wastewater to:
- Identify proven and effective mercury treatment technologies;
- Screen technologies based on application-specific goals, characteristics, and cost; and
- Apply experiences from sites with similar treatment challenges.
Monitored Natural AttenuationTechnical Protocol for Evaluating Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Ground Water (EPA) (1998) Recommended!
This document presents a technical protocol for data collection and analysis to evaluate MNA through biological processes for remediating groundwater contaminated with mixtures of fuels and chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons. It identifies parameters that are useful for evaluation of natural attenuation of chlorinated solvents (chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons and/or fuel hydrocarbons) and provides recommendations for analyzing and interpreting the data collected during the site characterization process. It also provides suggestions for integrating MNA into a remedial approach, which includes an active remedy.
Technical Protocol for Implementing Intrinsic Remediation with Long-Term Monitoring for Natural Attenuation of Fuel Contamination Dissolved in Groundwater, Volumes 1 and 2 (U.S. Air Force) (1998) Recommended!
This document presents a technical protocol for data collection and analysis in support of MNA with long-term monitoring for restoration of groundwater contaminated with fuel hydrocarbons. It describes the processes associated with MNA, the site characterization activities that may be performed to support evaluation of the MNA option, MNA modeling using analytical or numerical solute fate and transport models, and the post-modeling activities that should be completed to ensure successful support and verification of MNA.
Download Vol. 1 (10.1MB/295pp/PDF)
Download Vol. 2 (11.4MB/183pp/PDF)
A Decision Framework for Applying Monitored Natural Attenuation Processes to Metals and Radionuclides in Groundwater (2010)
The purpose of this Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council (ITRC) guidance is to facilitate acceptance of attenuation-based remedies including monitored natural attenuation (MNA) and enhanced attenuation (EA) for remediation of metals and radionuclides in groundwater, where appropriate. The guidance summarizes the results of, and provides solutions for, issues identified in a Web-based survey of state regulators and stakeholders to determine the existing state of knowledge and acceptance of remedies based on MNA. It also includes a decision framework that allows users to evaluate the feasibility of MNA processes at contaminated sites and incorporates key aspects of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) three-volume, technical background series on MNA. In addition, the guidance identifies approaches and key issues associated with evaluating attenuation-based remedies for metal- and radionuclide-contaminated sites with multiple contaminants. To illustrate the key messages of this guidance and demonstrate the application of attenuation-based remedies to real-world scenarios, the guidance presents several case studies.
Enhanced Attenuation: Chlorinated Organics (2008)
This Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council (ITRC) guidance document provides regulators and the environmental community with different options to transition sites with chlorinated organic contamination in groundwater to lower-energy remedial alternatives and eventually to monitored natural attenuation. Enhanced attenuation, the focus of this document, is a plume remediation strategy to achieve groundwater restoration goals by providing a "bridge" between source-zone treatment and MNA and/or between MNA and slightly more aggressive remedial action methods. This document was developed by the ITRC Enhanced Attenuation: Chlorinated Organics (EACO) Team to serve as a protocol for using enhanced attenuation as a smooth transition between aggressive remedial actions and MNA to treat chlorinated solvents. In addition this document provides direction to regulators and practitioners on how to integrate EA into the remedial decision process as well as concepts and working methodology that support the EA processes. A detailed example of the application of EA with illustrated discussions is included in the document.
Estimating Cleanup Times Associated with Combining Source-Area Remediation with Monitored Natural Attenuation (2008)
This Environmental Security Technology Certification Program cost and performance report provides an overview of a demonstration that evaluated the capability of the Natural Attenuation Software (NAS) to provide reasonable estimates of monitored natural attenuation (MNA) cleanup time frames in a variety of geologic or hydrogeochemical environments and sites throughout the United States. NAS was developed as a screening tool for estimating time of remediation (TOR) for MNA with varying degrees of source area remediation. NAS consists of a combination of computational tools to make complex analytical and numerical solutions of the TOR problem accessible to remedial project managers (RPM) and their contractors using site-specific remediation objectives. This report describes in detail the demonstration design, performance assessment, cost assessment, and implementation issues. A methodology and tool like this can allow stakeholders to make informed decisions regarding its application, forecast budget requirements for long-term monitoring programs, and allow better program planning to meet future needs of cleanup programs.
Impact of Landfill Closure Designs on Long-Term Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Hydrocarbons (ESTCP) (2002)
Assists the Environmental Security Technology Certification Program and their Department of Defense technology-transition partners in developing alternative landfill closure designs and management strategies that can enhance the long-term natural attenuation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons in landfills and landfill-leachate-contaminated groundwater.
Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater: Principles and Practices. Reprinted September (EPA) (1999)
Description of practices to be used to recognize and evaluate the presence of natural attenuation of chlorinated solvent contamination.
Draft Protocol for Evaluating, Selecting, and Implementing Monitored Natural Attenuation at Explosives-Contaminated Sites (ESTCP)
Integrates available data into guidance that can be used to advise and assist Department of Defense installations as they assess the feasibility of and/or implement monitored natural attenuation as a remedial alternative for sites contaminated with the explosives TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene), its transformation products, and RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine).
Draft Technical Protocol for Characterizing Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvent Ground-Water Plumes Discharging into Wetlands
This document is an addendum to the Technical Protocol for Evaluating Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Ground Water. This document presents many of the same fundamental principles as the former document for the characterization of natural attenuation of chlorinated solvents in wetland environments but provides alternatives for the development of site conceptual models and for appropriate field methodologies for characterizing natural attenuation processes. The technical methodologies presented in this document include: (1) collection of soil/sediment borings, (2) reconnaissance methods and strategies, (3) installation of multilevel piezometer (or ground-water sampler) transects, and (4) characterization of the hydrogeology and biogeochemistry.
Multi-Phase ExtractionMulti-Phase Extraction (USACE) (1999) Recommended!
This engineering manual provides practical guidance for evaluating the feasibility and applicability of MPE for remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater and describes design and operational considerations for MPE systems. The document is primarily intended to present USACE technical policy on the use of the technology and to help prevent incorrect MPE application or MPE use in unfavorable settings.
Multi-Phase Extraction: State-of-the-Practice (EPA) (1999)
This report describes the state-of-the-practice for multi-phase extraction (MPE) of contaminated soil and groundwater, focusing primarily on the application and use of MPE at sites with halogenated volatile organic compounds. MPE is an innovative technology that has the potential to be more cost-effective and to remediate sites more quickly than with use of conventional technologies.
Organic and Inorganic Chemical CharacterizationField-portable Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS) Unit for Semi-volatile Compound Analysis in Groundwater (2011) Newly Posted!
This report was prepared by the Department of Defense (DoD) Environmental Security Technology Certification Program. It describes a demonstration study to evaluate the use of a field-portable gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GC-MS) unit to analyze semi-volatile compounds in groundwater. Field demonstrations were conducted at two demonstrations sites: (1) Louisiana Army Ammunition Plant (LAAP) in Shreveport, Louisiana; and (2) Milan Army Ammunition Plant (MAAP) in Milan, Tennessee. The primary objective of the study was to demonstrate (1) the use of field analysis for contaminants of concern related to semi-volatile munitions constituents, and (2) the capability of the Griffin 450 GC-MS unit in analyzing semi-volatile compounds in groundwater. At each field demonstration site, groundwater samples were collected using a traditional sampling methodology. Each sample was split into two portions. One portion was analyzed in the field using the Griffin 450 GC-MS unit and the other portion was shipped to a traditional laboratory for High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 8330B. Compounds evaluated at each demonstration were nitrobenzene (NB), 1,3-dinitrobenzene (1,3-DNB), 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT), 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNB), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5 triazine (RDX). Results of the demonstration indicate that reporting limits met using the Griffin 450 GC-MS unit compare to traditional laboratory analysis. However, some limitations were observed regarding the field-portable instruments stability, linear dynamic range, and detection limits compared to traditional fixed-base laboratory analysis. The instrument demonstrated quantitative capability for 1,3-DNB, 2,4-DNT, and TNT but was only suitable for screening purposes for the TNB and RDX compounds. The report includes information regarding contaminant distributions at each demonstration site, test design, performance assessment results, cost assessment results, and issues encountered during implementation of the Griffin 450 GC-MS unit.
PerchlorateRemediation Technologies for Perchlorate Contamination in Water and Soil (2008)
This document provides an overview of treatment technologies used to remediate perchlorate from contaminated water and soil. The report provides site evaluation considerations, remedy selection considerations, regulatory considerations and treatment technologies. The report also provides three case studies for the remediation of perchlorate in soil and groundwater using a variety of treatment technologies. Treatment technologies include six physical treatment processes (ion exchange, granular activated carbon, reverse osmosis, nanofiltration/ultrafiltration, electrodialysis, and capacitive deionization); three in situ biological treatment approaches (source zone treatment, plume containment using a biologically reactive barrier, and plume-wide restoration); three ex situ biological treatment systems (fluidized bed reactor, packed-bed reactor and continuously stirred tank reactor); and phytoremediation and phytodegradation. Information regarding the availability, performance, and cost of each technology is also provided.
Permeable Reactive BarriersPermeable Reactive Barriers: Lessons Learned/New Directions (ITRC) (2005) Recommended!
This document updates previous guidance issued by the ITRC. The goal for this document was to compile information on PRBs that has been generated over the last 10 years of technology development and research as well as to provide information on non-iron-based reactive media that can be used in PRBs. The document also provides an update on a developing technology related to PRBs in which source zone contamination is treated with iron-based reactive media.
Capstone Report on the Application, Monitoring, and Performance of Permeable Reactive Barriers for Ground-Water Remediation: Volumes I and II (EPA) (2003) Recommended!
This report builds on work done in previous studies conducted by ESTCP. It evaluates the long-term performance of zero-valent iron PRBs at several sites, including sites in Elizabeth City, North Carolina, and Denver Federal Center, Colorado. The evaluation focuses on changes in iron reactivity and reaction zone permeability over time. The parameters used for the evaluation are trends in geochemistry (for example, pH and oxidation-reduction potential); microbiological activity within and around the barriers; and surface precipitation forming over time in the barriers. The report discusses how these parameters may be evaluated to predict barrier longevity and performance over time. The evaluation will be useful to project managers who are constructing remedial designs and developing performance-monitoring programs.
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Permeable Reactive Barrier Technologies for Contaminant Remediation (EPA) (1998) Recommended!
This issue paper contains information on PRB-treatable contaminants; treatment reaction mechanisms; feasibility studies for PRB implementation; site characterization; and PRB design, emplacement, and monitoring for both compliance and performance as well as summaries of several field applications. It also includes a summary of significant findings of PRB research through 1997 and scoping calculations used to estimate the amount of reactive media required.
Evaluation of Amendments for mending the ISRM Barrier (2004)
This Department of Energy study evaluates chemical and biological amendments to improve the performance of the In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) Barrier at the 100-D Area of the Hanford Site in Washington. The reactive ISRM barrier was installed between 1999 and 2003 to treat a plume of Hexavalent chromium in the groundwater. Performance of the barrier declined causing elevated chromium concentrations in groundwater. The amendments evaluated to mend the barrier and restore its effectiveness include dithionite, calcium polysulfide, micron-scale iron, nano-scale iron, dissolved iron, and biostimulants. The amendments were evaluated using several criteria, including effectiveness, implementability, maintenance (longevity), safety, regulatory acceptance, and cost.
Evaluation of Performance and Longevity at Permeable Reactive Barrier Sites (ESTCP) (2003)
Presents an evaluation of short- and long-term performance issues associated with PRBs installed at several DoD sites. Assesses the longevity of PRBs made from iron and assesses the hydraulic performance of various PRBs in terms of their ability to meet the desired groundwater capture zone and residence time requirements.
Economic Analysis of the Implementation of Permeable Reactive Barriers for Remediation of Contaminated Groundwater (EPA) (2002)
This report presents an analysis of the cost of using permeable reactive barriers to remediate contaminated groundwater. When possible, these costs are compared with the cost of pump-and-treat technology for similar situations.
Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barrier Performance — Revised Report (FRTR) (2002)
This document summarizes field performance evaluations if several PRBs installed at sites under the purview of DoD, DOE, and EPA. The evaluations focused on the longevity and hydraulic performance of the PRBs in various geologic settings. The results of these studies are being provided to RPMs at government owned sites to aid in decision-making.
Field Applications of In Situ Remediation Technologies: Permeable Reactive Barriers (EPA) (2002)
Summarizes technical data and lessons learned from profiles of more than 40 installations of permeable reactive barriers for groundwater remediation in the United States, Canada, and selected locations abroad.
Long-term Performance of Permeable Reactive Barriers Using Zero-valent Iron: An Evaluation at Two Sites (EPA) (2002)
Presents findings over the past four years at two sites where detailed investigations by the U.S. EPA have focused on the long-term performance of permeable reactive barriers (PRBs). Examines the field performance of multiple PRBs across the United States.
Final Design Guidance for Application of Permeable Reactive Barriers for Groundwater Remediation (ESTCP) (2000)
Reviews performance of previously installed permeable reactive barriers (PRBs), and evaluates design and construction of newer PRB applications, such as the one at Dover AFB.
Design Guidance for Application of Permeable Barriers to Remediate Dissolved Chlorinated Solvents (USACE) (1997)
Design guidance for in situ remediation of dissolved chlorinated solvents in groundwater using permeable reactive barriers. Addresses treatability testing, design, installation, and monitoring of barrier technologies in variable geologic settings.
Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)Reference Guide to Non-Combustion Technologies for Remediation of Persistent Organic Pollutants in Stockpiles and Soil (EPA) (2005)
This report provides a summary of existing and emerging non-combustion technologies for the remediation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in stockpiles and soil. The report provides short descriptions of a range of non-combustion technologies and highlights new performance data showing various considerations associated with selecting a non-combustion technology. The report evaluates the technologies based on waste strength treated, ex situ or in situ technology, contaminants treated, cost information when available, pretreatment requirements, power requirements, and configuration needs. Case studies are provided that show the various considerations associated with selecting a non-combustion technology.
PhytoremediationField Demonstration of Rhizosphere-Enhanced Treatment of Organics-Contaminated Soils on Native American Lands with Application to Northern FUD Sites (ESTCP) (2004)
Provides information on the field demonstrations of rhizosphere-enhanced bioremediation of three petroleum, oils, and lubricants sites located in Alaska. The demonstrations evaluated the use of rhizosphere-enhanced bioremediation in northern regions where low temperatures, site inaccessibility, permafrost, and freeze-thaw cycles limit or prevent the cost-effective application of traditional technologies and emerging innovative technologies. Results demonstrated statistically significant plant effects for specific petroleum fractions.
Technical and Regulatory Guidance Document for Constructed Treatment Wetlands (ITRC) (2003)
Provides technical and regulatory guidance to help regulators, industry, consultants, and technology vendors understand, evaluate, and make informed decisions about the use of constructed treatment wetland systems. The report also documents a number of current successful treatment systems and demonstrates the maturity of the technology in many emerging applications.
Phytoremediation of Contaminated Soil and Groundwater at Hazardous Waste Sites (EPA) (2001)
Focuses on processes and applications of phytoremediation at hazardous waste sites. Addresses application of the technology to sediments, groundwater, surface water, and wastewater.
Phytotechnology Technical and Regulatory Guidance Document (ITRC) (2001)
Provides technical and regulatory guidance to help regulators understand, evaluate, and make informed decisions on phytotechnology proposals. This document includes a description of phytotechnologies, regulatory and policy issues, technical requirements for phytotechnologies, stakeholder concerns, case studies, and technical references.
Draft Protocol for Controlling Contaminated Groundwater by Phytostabilization (AFCEE) (1999)
Discusses planning and implementation of phytostabilization, preliminary site screening, system design and plant establishment, operation and maintenance of system, documentation, verification of performance and project completion.
Phytoremediation Decision Tree (ITRC) (1999)
A tool that can be used to determine if phytoremediation has the ability to be effective at a given site. It is designed to complement existing phytoremediation documents, and it allows the user to take basic information from a specific site and, through a flowchart layout, decide if phytoremediation is feasible at that site.
Planning and Promoting Ecological Land Reuse of Remediated Site
This guidance document provides information on achieving ecological land reuse goals by applying natural or green technologies and strategies to the selected remediation process. This information is presented in a flow diagram that identifies key decision points for applying natural or green technologies and addresses the practicality of doing so. Case studies are provided that demonstrate the integration of natural or green technologies to a remedial process and document the benefits achieved through such approaches.
Pump and TreatA Systematic Approach for Evaluation of Capture Zones at Pump and Treat Systems
This United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) document describes a systematic approach for performing capture zone analysis associated with ground-water pump and treat (P&T) systems. The scope of this document is limited to evaluating capture in porous media and not necessarily karst or fractured rock settings. When evaluating capture zones, this document is intended to be used as a companion document to Methods for Monitoring Pump-and-Treat Performance (U.S. EPA, 1994). The report presents a systematic approach (six steps) for performing the capture zone evaluation. Used as part of an iterative process of field evaluation, this analysis increases the likelihood of a pumping scenario that achieves successful capture. Hypothetical and actual case studies are provided to illustrate the systematic approach to capture zone analysis, and to highlight some of the details associated with specific techniques for evaluating capture.
Soil Vapor Extraction (SVE)Engineering and Design — Soil Vapor Extraction and Bioventing (USACE) (2002) Recommended!
This engineering manual provides practical guidance for design and operation of SVE and bioventing (BV) systems. It addresses all aspects of the engineering of SVE and BV systems, including site characterization, technology selection, bench- and pilot-scale testing, design, installation, operation, and closure.
Analysis of Selected Enhancements for Soil Vapor Extraction (EPA) (1997)
Engineering analysis of, and status report on, selected enhancements for soil vapor extraction: air sparging, dual-phase extraction, directional drilling, pneumatic and hydraulic fracturing, and thermal enhancement. Also offers evaluation of each technology's applicability to various site conditions, cost and performance information, list of vendors specializing in technologies, discussion of relative strengths and limitations of technologies, recommendations when considering enhancements, and extensive references.
Soil WashingSoil Washing Through Separation/Solubilization: Guide Specification for Construction (USACE) (2004)
This guide specification covers the requirements for removal of heavy metals/inorganics, organics, and radioactive wastes by water-based soil washing.
Technical and Regulatory Guidelines for Soil Washing (ITRC) (1997)
Focuses on technical and regulatory issues associated with implementation of soil washing technology at sites contaminated with metals. The document provides guidelines to facilitate the deployment of soil washing technologies by users and regulators.
Solidification/StabilizationDevelopment of Performance Specifications for Solidification/Stabilization (2011) Newly Posted!
This technical/regulatory guidance report was prepared by the Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council Solidification/Stabilization Team. The document presents guidance on developing performance specifications for the solidification/stabilization treatment including design, implementation, and long-term performance monitoring. Emphasis is placed on evaluating system performance by assessing contaminant leachability over time. The guidance report describes how the document was developed, solidification/stabilization technology, the selection process for determining performance specifications, the process for evaluating material performance goals, and information on treatability tests. The document also includes considerations for implementing long-term monitoring, addressing potential stakeholder concerns, and appendices with additional information and case studies. The guidance report concentrates on the in situ use of inorganic cementitious/pozzolanic reagents that solidify and cure contaminated media on site.
Technology Performance Review: Selecting and Using Solidification / Stabilization Treatment for Site Remediation (2009)
The purpose of this Technical Performance Review (TPR), prepared by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, is to provide assistance to decision makers such as Remedial Project Managers (RPMs) and other interested parties in evaluating Solidification/Stabilization (S/S) as a treatment option for their sites. It provides a basic summary of the S/S process and its potential applicability across multiple sites and conditions. This document also addresses important factors to consider in the selection of S/S treatment, such as S/S specifications to evaluate performance, type of contaminants to be treated, and cost considerations. Site-specific case studies illustrate where this technology has been successfully applied and where there are limitations. Each case study includes a brief project description, regulatory status, S/S treatment process (including the binder materials used), and a summary of the performance data. Estimated treatment costs and maintenance activities are also included when available.
In Situ Stabilization/In-place Inactivation. December (ITRC) (1997)
This document describes in situ stabilization/in-place inactivation as an emerging technology for the remediation of metals in soil. It is one of three separate status reports on technologies for treatment of metals in soils and potential regulatory issues associated with their use. It outlines several case studies and identifies future research and development needs.
Thermal DesorptionTechnical Requirements for On-Site Low Temperature Thermal Desorption of Solid Media and Low Level Mixed Waste Contaminated with Mercury and/or Hazardous Chlorinated Organics (ITRC) (1998)
Protocol for minimum technical requirements to treat solid media and certain low level radioactive mixed wastes contaminated with mercury and/or hazardous chlorinated organics such as chlorinated solvents, chlorinated pesticides, and PCBs, through the application of thermal desorption technologies.
Technical Requirements for On-Site Low Temperature Thermal Desorption of Solid Media Contaminated with Hazardous Chlorinated Organics. September (ITRC) (1997)
Protocol for minimum technical requirements to treat solid media contaminated with hazardous chlorinated organics such as chlorinated solvents, chlorinated pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls, through the application of thermal desorption technologies. The requirements presented in this document are directed toward relatively small, short term, on-site projects as opposed to permanent treatment, storage and disposal facilities.
Technical Requirements for On-Site Low Temperature Thermal Desorption of Non-Hazardous Soils Contaminated with Petroleum/Coal Tar/Gas Plant Wastes (ITRC) (1996)
Protocol for minimum technical requirements to treat non-hazardous soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants, coal tar, and other manufactured gas plant contaminants. The document deals with contaminants including gasoline, mineral spirits, kerosene, jet fuel, fuel oil, crude oil and cutting oil, coal tars, tar soils, purifier box waste, purifier box waste contaminated soil and a combination of all of these contaminants.
Thermal Desorption Implementation Issues: Engineering Forum Issue Paper (EPA) (1995)
Identifies issues and summarizes experiences with thermal desorption as a remedy for volatile organic compounds in soils. Issues presented reflect discussions with over 15 project managers and technical experts.
Thermal Treatment (In Situ)In Situ Thermal Treatment of Chlorinated Solvents: Fundamentals and Field Applications (EPA) (2004) Recommended!
In situ thermal treatment technologies have proven to be effective in remediating source zones contaminated with chlorinated solvents and are increasingly being used for that purpose. This report provides an overview of the principles and science behind the technology; its applicability and general engineering considerations; and applications of the technology through site-specific examples and case studies. Specific technologies addressed include steam-enhanced extraction, electrical resistive heating, and thermal conductive heating.
Critical Evaluation of State-of-the-Art In Situ Thermal Treatment Technologies for DNAPL Source Zone Treatment (2010) Newly Posted!
This cost and performance report was prepared by the Environmental Security Technology Certification Program of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD). The report reviews the performance of thermal-based technologies for sites with source zones of dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL). The study emphasizes post-treatment groundwater quality and mass discharge rates as measures of successful treatment. A review of 182 sites where thermal-based technologies were applied was conducted to gather data on geological conditions, contaminants treated, operating conditions, and system performance. Field sampling was conducted at select sites post-treatment to provide additional data. The report summarizes the results of the data collection and evaluation and provides findings that can be used by program managers who are considering in situ thermal soil and aquifer remediation technologies. The report also includes descriptions of the technologies, identifies how sites were selected for review, overviews evaluation methods, provides cost assessment methods and results, and presents implementation issues associated with the technologies.
Engineering and Design Manual, Design: In Situ Thermal Remediation (2009)
This U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Engineering and Design Manual, Design: In Situ Thermal Remediation (ISTR) provides guidance and background for the appropriate screening and selection of ISTR technologies, including steam enhanced extraction, electrical resistivity heating, and thermal conductive heating. This document is intended to help distinguish proper applications of the technology and identify important design, operational, and monitoring issues relevant to Government oversight personnel. The following topics are included: fundamental processes of ISTR performance, site characterization for ISTR technology screening and design, design considerations, cost and performance results, monitoring requirements and approaches, and system shut-down. The manual identifies specific issues related to the implementation of ISTR technology, including: regulatory considerations, contracting, safety, and patent/licensing. Specific applications of ISRT technologies are summarized where information is available.
Cost and Performance Review of Electrical Resistance Heating (ERH) for Source Treatment
This document provides five cost and performance case studies on the application of the Electrical Resistance Heating (ERH) in situ thermal treatment technology at various naval facilities. Each case study provides information on the technologies application and lessons learned from the projects. The results from the projects show that ERH is an effective technology in treating dense non-aqueous phase liquid contamination. This document provides five cost and performance case studies on the application of the Electrical Resistance Heating (ERH) in situ thermal treatment technology at various naval facilities. Each case study provides information on the technologies application and lessons learned from the projects. The results from the projects show that ERH is an effective technology in treating dense non-aqueous phase liquid contamination.
Design: In Situ Thermal Treatment
This document provides guidance and background information for the appropriate screening and selection of in situ thermal treatment technologies, including: steam enhanced extraction, electrical resistivity heating, and thermal conductive heating. The purpose of the document is to provide information on the proper application of the technologies and to identify important design, operational, and monitoring issues relevant to Government oversight personnel. The report provides cost and performance case studies for the application of in situ thermal treatment technologies.
UST Sites/Fuel-Contaminated SitesHow to Evaluate Alternative Cleanup Technologies for Underground Storage Tank Sites: A Guide for Corrective Action Plan Reviewers (EPA) (2004) Recommended!
The purpose of this manual is to provide guidance for reviewing corrective action plans that propose alternative cleanup technologies for the remediation of leaking underground storage tank sites. The manual does not advocate the use of one technology over another; rather, it focuses on appropriate technology use with consideration of site-specific conditions and the nature and extent of contamination. A chapter discussing MNA as a technology alternative is included in the manual.
Source Reduction Effectiveness at Fuel-Contaminated Sites (AFCEE) (2000)
Assesses degree to which various types of engineered source-reduction efforts at selected fuel-contaminated sites have resulted in decreasing concentrations of fuel constituents dissolved in groundwater. Describes methodology for evaluating potential effectiveness of source-reduction actions at reducing the magnitude and extent of dissolved fuel constituents.