The goal of remedial investigation/feasibility studies (RI/FS)
and hazardous waste cleanup projects is to obtain enough
information on a site to consider and select practicable remedial
alternatives. Gathering this information can require considerable
time, effort, and finances. In some cases, it is possible to
focus on specific remedies that have been proven under similar
This reference guide provides a "yellow pages" of
remediation technologies. It is intended to be used to screen and
evaluate candidate cleanup technologies for contaminated
installations and waste sites in order to assist remedial project
managers (RPMs) in selecting a remedial alternative. To reduce
data collection efforts and to focus the remedial evaluation
steps, information on widely used and presumptive remedies is
provided. Figure 1-1 illustrates the trend
toward reduction in the degree of site characterization through
screening and the use of presumptive remedies.
Presumptive remedies, as established by the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA), are preferred technologies for common
categories of sites, based on historical patterns of remedy
selection and EPA's scientific and engineering evaluation of
performance data on technology implementation. Use of presumptive
remedies will allow a RPM to focus on one or two alternatives:
decreasing the site characterization data needs and focusing the
remedial evaluation steps, resulting in less time and effort.
Conversely, sites with extensive data needs will require a more
thorough characterization and evaluation of many remedial
The unique approach used to prepare this guide was to review
and compile the collective efforts of several U.S. Government
agencies into one compendium document. For each of several
high-frequency of occurrence types of sites, the guide enables
the reader to:
- Screen for possible treatment technologies.
- Distinguish between emerging and mature technologies.
- Assign a relative probability of success based on
available performance data, field use, and engineering
This reference guide allows the reader to gather essential
descriptive information on the respective technologies. It
incorporates cost and performance data to the maximum extent
available and focuses primarily on demonstrated technologies.
However, emerging technologies may be more appropriate in some
cases, based upon site conditions and requirements. All levels of
remediation technologies are included in this guide. The final
selection of a technology usually requires site-specific
treatability studies. As more is learned about developing
technologies, this guide will be updated accordingly. These
technologies are applicable at all types of site cleanups:
Superfund, DoD, DOE, RCRA, state, private, etc.
A primary audience for this document is RPMs and their
supporting contractors and consultants. This audience also
includes the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) installation
commanders, environmental coordinators, trainers at DoD and
federal installations, agencies, researchers, Congressional
staffers, public interest groups, and private sector consultants.