Site Characterization and Monitoring Technologies

The site characterization and monitoring case studies document experiences and lessons learned in 203 field demonstrations and full-scale uses of innovative technologies for site characterization and monitoring. The case studies, organized into the categories listed below, provide information that can help project managers, technology providers, consulting engineers, and other interested parties in identifying the most useful options for determining the type, magnitude, and extent of site contamination, which is integral to effective remediation decision-making.

Air Emissions

Contaminant Analyses

  Explosives Characterization
  Inorganic Chemical Characterization
  Organic Chemical Characterization
  PCB/Pesticides Characterization
  Radionuclide Characterization
  Unexploded Ordnance Characterization

Geophysical Techniques

  In Situ/Bore Hole
  Surface (EM, Radiation, GPR)

Miscellaneous/Leak Detection

Triad-Related Strategies/Techniques

  Field-Based Strategies/Direct Push/Cone Penetrometer

Vapor Intrusion



Air Emissions

Measurement of Fugitive Emissions at a Region 1 Landfill (2002)
This report was prepared by EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory to describe the results from a field study performed during September and October 2002 to at a Superfund site in Somersworth, New Hampshire. The study used an open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectrometer, which uses optical remote sensing-radial plume mapping (ORS-RPM) to evaluate fugitive emissions. The focus of the study was to characterize the emissions of methane and hazardous air pollutants in landfill gas emissions from the site. This information was needed to help determine whether active controls were to be required. Results consisted of an emissions contour map of the site and identification of three emission hot spots. Funding for this work was provided by EPA's Monitoring and Measurement for the 21st Century Initiative (21 M2).
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Field Test of an Ultraviolet Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometer for Remote Air Toxics Sensing (2001)
This report describes a study that evaluated the use of Ultraviolet Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometer (UV-DOAS) during and after capping and slope stabilization activities at the Paxton Landfill in southeast Chicago. The UV-DOAS identifies and quantifies hazardous air pollutants in real time. It uses a projector fitted with a Xenon vapor lamp, which transmits an ultraviolet light beam to a spectrometer built within a receiver. The spectrums's absorption bands are analyzed and specific gases are identified and quantified. At the landfill, the projector was secured to the roof of a trailer at one end of the landfill, and the receiver near another trailer located 232 meters away, along the landfill fence line. The UV-DOAS reported concentrations of benzene, toluene, m-xylene, styrene, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide every three minutes. The concentrations were compared with data obtained from VOC canister samples placed along the beam path. The researchers noted several difficulties with the UV-DOAS system, including comparability with canister results for organic compounds, and equipment maintenance.
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Airborne Lead Analyzer (2000)
This Environmental Security Technology Certificate Program (ESTCP) report presents results from field demonstrations conducted in January 2000 at the Naval Amphibious Base located in Little Creek, Virginia and a field demonstration performed in June 2000 at an outdoor firing range located at MCAGCC, Twentynine Palms, California. The Real Time Airborne Lead Analyzer is designed to combine sampling, extraction, and analysis into a portable, automatic unit which analyzes airborne lead and lead dust contamination onsite and near real time. The analyzer's primary purposes are to provide ambient air monitoring and personal breathing zone analyses. Applications of the technology include reporting occupational airborne lead levels during lead-based paint abatement projects and near shooting ranges.
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High Resolution Spectrometer Continuous Emissions Air Monitoring (2000)
The Compact High-Resolution Spectrophotometer (CHRS) is used to analyze, detect, and measure the light produced when off-gas emissions from thermal treatment of mixed waste is stimulated by plasma, spark, or focused laser excitation. It is less than one-tenth the size and weight of a conventional spectrophotometer with comparable resolution. This report describes several demonstrations where the CHRS was used as part of a multi-component continuous emissions monitor (CEM) system.
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Contaminant Analyses

Explosives Characterization

Applied Innovative Technologies for Characterization of Nitrocellulose and Nitroglycerin Contaminated Buildings and Soil (2008)
The objectives of this Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) demonstration were to evaluate and document the performance and reliability of three candidate field technologies for detecting and quantifying nitrocellulose (NC) and nitroglycerine (NG) in building materials and soil. The technologies evaluated in the field demonstration were DROPEXPlus/EXPRAY™ colorimetric indicators, gas chromatography/thermionic ionization detection (GC/TID), and the U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) RDX colorimetric field screening method. In this demonstration, wood, soil, and concrete samples were collected at Badger Army Ammunition Plant (BAAAP), in Sauk County, Wisconsin and analyzed using each of the three technologies. This cost and performance report describes the field technologies, their application, and technology advantages and limitations. It also includes a detailed assessment of the three methods for identifying NC and NG in the field compared and evaluated against off-site laboratory method analysis. The technologies were compared across several criteria including compound identification, reliability, ease of use, and maintenance. The results of the demonstration were used to develop building characterization procedures for sites with similar explosive materials.
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Comparison of Pumped and Diffusion Sampling Methods to Monitor Concentrations of Perchlorate and Explosive Compounds in Ground Water, Camp Edwards, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 2004-05 (2008)
This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), summarizes the results of laboratory and field tests of passive diffusion sampling methods to monitor the concentration of perchlorate and explosive compounds in groundwater. The study was conducted at Camp Edwards on the Massachusetts Military Reservation on Cape Cod. The report provides information on the study design including selection of monitoring wells, pumped sampling method, diffusion sampling methods, and comparison of pumped and diffusion sampling methods. The results of the laboratory and field tests indicate that passive diffusion sampling may be a useful method for long-term monitoring of concentrations of perchlorate and explosive compounds in monitoring wells.
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Portable SERS Instrument for Explosives Monitoring (2008)
This cost and performance report prepared by the Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), describes three demonstrations of the Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) portable instrument at two Army facilities, Alabama Army Ammunition Plant (ALAAP) and Umatilla Chemical Depot (UMCD). Raman Spectroscopy is a high-resolution, vibrational spectroscopic technique that produces a unique "fingerprint" spectrum for each analyte, allowing the components of a mixture to be discriminated in a single test. In SERS, the analyte signal, which is usually weak in conventional Raman spectroscopy, is enhanced by up to 106 times by adsorbing analytes onto a noble metal surface (for example, colloidal gold), allowing for trace analysis. These demonstrations were designed to field test and demonstrate the potential of SERS to reduce time, cost, and waste generated per analysis compared to traditional lab and other field methods. The report describes the design, setup, and operation of the SERS device at the Army facilities. In addition, it provides an assessment of the instrument's performance, cost and implementation considerations.
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Aboveground Storage Tank Leak Detection and Monitoring (2004)
The Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC) Port Hueneme and its industrial partners have demonstrated and validated a mass-based leak detection system for aboveground storage tanks (ASTs). The Low-Range Differential Pressure (LRDP) system is a computer-controlled system that can reliably detect small leaks in a wide range of sizes of ASTs. The results of an evaluation performed by the Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) showed that the LRDP has the performance to meet the monthly monitoring and annual precision (tightness) test regulatory compliance requirements set for bulk USTs using a test that takes less than 24 hours to conduct. In a previous test, the LRDP was tested in a 122.5 ft diameter bulk UST at the Point Loma Fuel Terminal. In this demonstration, the LRDP was tested in a 54 ft diameter fixed-roof tank with a floating oil pan at Fairchild AFB. This report describes that demonstration, as well as a third-party evaluation conducted on a 164.5 ft diameter AST containing jet fuel (JP-8) at the Fleet Industrial Service Center.
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Characterization of Explosives-Contaminated DoD Building Foundations and Underlying Soils (2004)
This report describes a demonstration performed by the Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) of methods used for characterizing the foundations, adjacent areas, and underlying areas of explosive-contaminated buildings, without removing the buildings and foundations. The demonstration was used to show that the methods could be applied to many of the buildings at Badger Army Ammunition Plant (AAP) and similar sites. Field methods used in the demonstration included Raman spectroscopy, Expray colorimetric indicator, and CRREL RDX colorimetric field screening. These methods were evaluated at five buildings in the Rocket Paste area at Badger AAP for nitrocellulose and nitroglycerine in soil samples and concrete slabs.
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Cost and Performance Report - Applications of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to UXO Delineation (2004)
This Environmental Security Technology Certificate Program (ESTCP) report describes a field demonstration of foliage penetration (FOPEN) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) to delineate unexploded ordnance (UXO). The FOPEN SAR is an ultrawide-band (UWB) system that uses low frequencies to achieve foliage penetration. The system transmits pulsed radio frequency waves and receives the echoes scattered from targets and the ground surface. The echoes are further processed to produce the final image. The demonstration was conducted at Camp Navajo, AZ in a test grid with target sizes ranging from 155-mm projectiles and objects representing 500- to 2,000-pound bombs. The objectives of the demonstration were to measure UXO target signatures in various settings as well as determine whether FOPEN SAR can be applied to UXO range delineation. The 155-mm projectiles were clearly observable as a cluster in the dense arrays in the open field, while none of the targets located under trees appeared to be visible in the images. Buried targets were not used for this demonstration due to certain site restrictions.
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Electromagnetic Induction and Magnetic Sensor Fusion for Enhanced UXO Target Classification (2004)
This report describes two demonstrations performed by the Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) of the Multi-Sensor Towed Array Detection System (MTADS). At a demonstration at the L Range of the Army Research Laboratory's Blossom Point facility, a towed-array magnetometer (one pass) and EM pulsed-induction data (two-pass) were used over a 3 acre site during a 12 hour survey. Results were compared with those from a baseline MTADS magnetometer analysis. In a second demonstration, conducted at the Impact Area of the Badlands Bombing Range that had been seeded with 25 inert projectiles, data from magnetometer, EM61 Mk I, and EM61 MkII were collected. The researchers concluded that while these methods are more costly on a per acre basis, they are more cost-effective on a detected target basis.
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On-Site Processing and Subsampling of Surface Soil Samples for Analysis of Explosives (2003)
To improve the representativeness of on-site analysis for explosives residues in surface soils, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Cold Regions Research & Engineering Laboratory evaluated a simple on-site processing (grinding and mixing) and subsampling protocol. Surface samples from three firing ranges (Camp Ethan Allen, Fort Bliss, and Fort Greely) were collected. The protocol used bulk samples which were air-dried, sieved, ground with a portable hand-operated mill, mixed, and then subsampled using layered bedding technique. This approach reduces laboratory-subsampling variance for both sparsely vegetated and vegetated surface soils. Moreover, during a subsequent dynamic sampling and analysis effort, this protocol was successful in ranking explosives residue concentrations associated with a specific military training activity.
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Study of Five Discrete Interval-Type Groundwater Sampling Devices (2002)
This report, prepared by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Cold Regions Research & Engineering Laboratory, provides results from an evaluation of five relatively newly developed groundwater sampling devices. The devices are the Kabis, HydraSleeve, Discrete Interval, Pneumo-Bailer, and USGS Passive Diffusion Bag (PDB). The devices were tested to determine their ability to recover representative concentrations of a variety of analytes, including volatile organics, explosives, pesticides, and metals. The first phase of the study included several standpipe experiments with known concentrations of analytes. In the second phase, the devices were used in the field to sample TCE from a deep well and were compared with samples collected using low-flow sampling. Results were discussed in terms of ease of use, accuracy, specificity, and cost.
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Cost and Performance Report - Man-Portable Adjuncts for the Multi-Sensor Towed Array Detection System (MTADS) (2001)
This Environmental Security Technology Certificate Program (ESTCP) report describes three field demonstrations of a modified Multi-Sensor Towed Array Detection System (MTADS) at L-Range at Blossom Point, MD in September 1999; Jefferson Proving Ground, IN in August 2000; and Kaho'olawe Island in the Fall of 2001. The original MTADS, developed by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), is a vehicle towed-array survey system that is currently being used by the Department of Defense (DoD) for locating and identifying all classes of buried unexploded ordnance (UXO) at formerly used defense sites (FUDS). However, this system is limited in its use on rugged terrain, or wooded sites, where certain components such as the global positioning system (GPS) are not very effective without a clear view of the sky. The three field demonstrations test two modified MTADS, a man-portable magnetometer system (MMS) and an electromagnetic man-portable system (EMMS) that use both acoustic and GPS navigation systems. The MMS and EMMS allow survey of areas that are inaccessible to the vehicular system and allow the data analysis system to efficiently overlay data sets.
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Low Concentration Method for the Determination of Perchlorate in Aqueous Samples Using Ion Selective Electrodes (2001)
This report describes use of a Sentek 367-75 Solid State Perchlorate Combination ion selective electrode (ISE) with an Orion Model 290A Advanced Portable ISE/pH/mV/Temperature Meter to measure low concentrations of perchlorate in water. The studies resulted in a method with a reporting limit set at 15 µg/L, supported by a low calibration point of 10 µg/L, and a method detection limit of 3 µg/L. The coefficients of determination for the studies were consistently higher than 0.99 and the method accuracy criterion of 20% was met throughout the linear range of 10 to 100 µg/L. Significant interferences were encountered for elevated concentrations of some anions; these were addressed in various ways depending on the anion. Split sample analyses were performed for 60 samples to determine whether analytical results for perchlorate by ion chromatography could be reproduced by ISE. The results showed non-detected ISE results confirmed in 54 of 55 samples, and detected results confirmed in five samples.
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GC and Thermionic Ionization Detection for Soil (2000)
This report is part of EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Report series. A verification test was conducted in August 2000, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee using soil samples containing 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). The Model 8610C is an onsite analytical instrument that can provide onsite analysis of soils for explosives by coupling a gas chromatograph with a thermionic ionization detector. Samples are prepared and injected onto the GC column. The sample is vaporized and is carried through the column by a nitrogen carrier gas. The components within the sample are separated based on relative affinities and vapor pressure. Upon elution at the end of the column, compounds containing nitrogen groups are ionized on the surface of the thermionic bead, and the increased conductivity within the detector is measured with a collector electrode.
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Immunosensors for Groundwater and Soil (2000)
This Environmental Security Technology Certificate Program (ESTCP) report describes the field trials (three for groundwater and one for soil) that were conducted at several geochemically diverse sites including three sites on the U.S. EPA Superfund list - SUBASE Bangor (Washington), Umatilla Army Depot, and NSWC Crane (Indiana). The Naval Research Laboratory has developed two biosensors for measuring TNT and RDX, based on fluorescence immunoassay techniques. The Analyte 2000 is a fiber optic biosensor capable of simultaneously monitoring four optical probes; the FAST 2000 is a continuous flow immunosensor.
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Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor for Soil (2000)
This report is part of EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Report series. The verification test was conducted in August 2000, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee using soil samples containing TNT. The Spreeta Sensor is a biosensor for 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). The instrument is a miniaturized sensor platform that uses surface plasmon resonance to detect changes on a gold sensing surface. Analyte specificity is provided by a thin biofilm on the sensor surface. Since TNT is most effective detected by methods other than direct binding, an inhibition assay is attached to the gold sensing surface of the Spreeta sensor. The assay is exposed to an anti-TNT antibody solution and surface binding of TNT is monitored. The actual binding for a sample is compared to a reference run to determine the presence or absence of TNT.
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Analysis of Nitroaromatic and Nitramine Explosives in Soil and Groundwater Using GC-NPD (1999)
This report, prepared by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Cold Regions Research & Engineering Laboratory, provides results from analysis of explosive compounds that are transformation products of TNT in soil and groundwater. The analyses were performed using gas chromatography and a nitrogen-phosphorus detector (GC-NPD). This method was found to be particularly useful in quantifying individual target analytes that often coexist in soils and groundwater contaminated with explosive residues, such as at military antitank firing ranges.
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GC and Ion Mobility Spectrometry for Soil and Groundwater (1999)
This report is part of EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Report series. The performance assessment was conducted between August and September 1999, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee using soil and water samples containing 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). The GC-IONSCAN is an onsite analytical instrument that combines the rapid analysis time of ion mobility spectrometry with the capabilities of gas chromatography to detect explosives. The instrument may be operated in one of two modes and provides either a quick screening analysis of samples with identification of the major constituents or full characterization and quantitative analysis of the sample.
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Immunoassay for Groundwater (1999)
This report is part of EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Report series. The demonstration was conducted between August and September 1999, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee using water samples containing 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). The FAST 2000 is an onsite analytical instrument that is based on a displacement assay that uses antibodies and fluorescence as a means of detecting explosives. During analysis, analyte-specific antibodies are saturated with a fluorescent-labeled signal molecule, creating an antibody/signal molecule complex. RDX and TNT antibodies are immobilized on membranes and saturated with the fluorescent tag. The membrane is placed in the FAST 2000 and samples are inserted into the biosensor. If the target analyte is detected in the sample, a proportional amount of the signal molecule is displaced from the antibody and detected on the fluorimeter downstream.
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Magnetometer Towed Array for Buried Waste (1999)
The Magnetometer Towed Array, also called the Surface Towed Ordnance Locator System (STOLSTM) is a passive, non-intrusive, site assessment method used to infer subsurface conditions at sites where buried wastes are contained or encapsulated in ferromagnetic materials. The system, originally built by the U.S. Navy to identify buried ordnance, has been demonstrated at Sandia National Laboratory and Kirtland Air Force Base.
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Analysis of Nitroaromatic, Nitramine, and Nitrate Ester Explosives in Water Using SPE and GC-ECD (1998)
This report, prepared by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Cold Regions Research & Engineering Laboratory, provides results from analysis of explosive compounds in water using soil-phase extraction (SPE) and gas chromatography electron capture detector (GC ECD). The analyses performed using GC ECD were compared with results obtained by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and these results were found to be in good agreement for the analytes most frequently detected. These included HMX, RDX, TNT, and TNB. The researchers found that the GC method provided lower detection limits, but that accurate calibration was more difficult.
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Overview of On-Site Analytical Methods for Explosives in Soil (1998)
This report, prepared by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Cold Regions Research & Engineering Laboratory, provides results from an evaluation of on-site methods for analysis of explosives in soil, primarily for TNT and RDX. Methods that have undergone significant validation typically are either colorimetric-based methods or enzyme immunoassay methods. The report discusses considerations such as specificity, detection limits, extraction, cost, and ease of use. A discussion of sampling design considerations and an overview of the most commonly used laboratory methods for analyzing explosives in soil also are provided.
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Detecting Metallic Primary Explosives with a Portable X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Spectrometer (1997)
This report, prepared by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Cold Regions Research & Engineering Laboratory, provides results from laboratory experiments using the MAP-3 XRF spectrum analyzer. This XRF unit, equipped with a Co-57 source, was used to analyze for lead and mercury in soil, which are commonly associated with explosives such as lead azide, lead styphnate, and mercury fulminate. The study found that high concentrations of lead and mercury could be detected in an active sample area of cylindrical shape, approximately 1 cm in diameter and 1.5 cm in depth.
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Evaluation of Commercial Enzyme Immunoassays for the Field Screening of TNT and RDX in Water (1997)
This report, prepared by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Cold Regions Research & Engineering Laboratory, provides results from an evaluation of immunoassay test kits for analysis of TNT and RDX in water samples. The kits tested were the EnviroGard, Quantix, RaPID, and DTECH. Water samples were collected from 44 monitoring wells at three military installations (NSWC Crane, Umatilla, and USSB Bangor) and analyzed using the test kits. The accuracy and precision of the test kits were compared with results obtained from use of the RP-HPLC, EPA Method 8330. Results showed that most of the kits achieved a ±50% relative percent difference criterion over 85% of the time. The researchers concluded that careful consideration must be given to interferences that may be present and unique for each application.
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Sampling Error Associated with Collection and Analysis of Soil Samples at a Firing Range Contaminated with HMX (1997)
Short-range and mid-rage (grid size) spatial heterogeneity in explosives concentrations within surface soils were studies at an active antitank firing range at the Canadian Force Base-Valcartier, Val-Belair, Quebec, Canada. This report, prepared by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Cold Regions Research & Engineering Laboratory, provides results from intensive sampling conducted over short distances using a 6-meter square grid pattern including two target tanks, with 16 grids total. Samples were analyzed on sites for HMX and TNT, including use of a colorimetric method.
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Use of Thin-Layer Chromatography for On-Site Analysis of Explosives in Soil (1997)
This report, prepared by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Cold Regions Research & Engineering Laboratory, provides results from testing performed using thin-layer chromatography (TLC) for analysis of explosives in soil. Compounds analyzed include TNT, RDX, HMX, and NG. The study found that TLC methods could be used to separate various components of explosives from soil samples.
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Assessment of Sampling Error Associated with Collection and Analysis of Soil Samples at Explosives-Contaminated Sites (1996)
This report, prepared by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Cold Regions Research & Engineering Laboratory, provides results from an evaluation of short-distance heterogeneity in concentrations of explosive compounds within surface soils. Discrete and composite samples were analyzed by both on-site colorimetric and standard laboratory protocols. Three locations were sampled at three installations (Monite, Hawthorne AAP, and Volunteer AAP) and the results were used to estimate the relative contributions of analytical error and sampling error to total uncertainty. The results from the study showed that characterization of explosives-contaminated sites using composite sampling, in-field sample homogenization, and on-site analysis is an efficient method of producing data that are accurate and precise, and representative of the area being sampled.
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On-Site Analysis for High Concentrations of Explosives in Soil (1996)
This report, prepared by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Cold Regions Research & Engineering Laboratory, provides results from an evaluation of the rate of extraction of TNT and RDX from highly contaminated soil using acetone and methanol. This study was performed because of concerns that protocols that specify short extraction times (one to three minutes) may lead to analytical results that are biased low if extraction kinetics are slow. The study identified recommendations for a field method making appropriate dilutions to analyze high concentrations of explosives in soil.
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Inorganic Chemical Characterization

Demonstration/Validation of the Snap Sampler (2011)   Newly Posted!
This cost and performance report was prepared by the United States Army Corps of Engineers. It describes two demonstration studies conducted to evaluate the use of a regenerative cellulose passive diffusion groundwater sampling device, the Snap Sampler, to collect samples to be analyzed for inorganic and organic chemical concentrations. Field demonstrations were conducted at two demonstration sites: (1) the former Pease Air Force Base (AFB) in Portsmouth, New Hampshire and (2) the former McClellan AFB located in Sacramento, California. The primary objectives of the demonstration studies was to demonstrate and validate the use of the Snap Sampler as a groundwater sampling device for the collection of samples for laboratory analysis of organic and inorganic chemical analytes. Analytical results for samples collected using the Snap Sampler were compared to results for samples collected using the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Region 1’s (1996) low-flow purging and sampling protocol. At each field demonstration location, the Snap Sampler was deployed to collect groundwater samples which were analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and dissolved inorganics. Analyte concentrations identified using the Snap Sampler were not statistically/significantly different from concentrations detected using the EPA Region 1’s low-flow purging protocol, with the exception of total iron and total manganese. The report includes information regarding demonstration conditions, performance assessment results, cost assessment results, and issues encountered during the deployment of the Snap Sampler.
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Bioavailability of Lead in Small Arms Range Soils (2009)
This cost and performance report was prepared by the Environmental Security Technology Certification Program of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD). It describes a demonstration study conducted to compare the bioavailability of lead using two characterization different methods (in vivo and in vitro) in small arms range soils. Historically, the site-specific bioavailability of lead has been assessed using the in vivo juvenile swine model, but significant reductions in cost and time could be achieved by using less expensive, less technical, and less time consuming in vitro models. The objective of the study was to demonstrate that the in vitro method can be used as a stand-alone method for risk assessment by determining the correlation between these two methods. To accomplish these objectives, parallel studies were conducted on small arms range soils from eight different sites using both methods. The test sites represented a diverse group of eight small arms ranges across the United States. The results of the study indicated that the in vitro method is a good predictor of the in vivo results, further strengthening the existing data that the in vitro method can be used as a stand-alone method for risk assessment. Demonstration design, performance assessment, cost assessment, and implementation issues are also included in this report.
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Site Characterization to Support Use of Monitored Natural Attenuation for Remediation of Inorganic Contaminants in Ground Water (2008)
The purpose of this report, prepared by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), is to focus on site characterization to support assessing the viability of monitored natural attenuation (MNA) as a remediation for groundwater contamination. MNA may be an effective remedy for groundwater for some sites. To determine appropriateness for a site, site characteristics and the MNA processes must be thoroughly understood. This report describes two case studies where monitoring and site evaluation techniques were critical to the evaluation of MNA as a potential component of groundwater cleanup. The first case study describes the Industri-Plex Superfund Site, a former chemical and glue manufacturing facility in Massachusetts. The second case study involves a U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) site in southeastern Washington. The results of these demonstrations illustrate the rigorous effort that is needed to reduce uncertainty when evaluating and selecting MNA as a component of a groundwater remedy.
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Bioavailable Ferric Iron (BAFeIII) Assay (2007)
This report provides information on the demonstration of an innovative analytical assay technology that detects bioavailable ferric iron (BAFeIII). This technology is a standardized bioassay that directly measures BAFeIII concentrations in soil and sediment. As part of the demonstration and validation process, the BAFeIII assay was used at four Department of Defense installations. Results from the four tests sites are presented in this report.
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Cost and Performance Report of Dissolved Hydrogen Analyzer (2005)
This Navy/Environmental Security Technology Certificate Program (ESTCP) report describes results from field demonstrations conducted at three Department of Defense (DoD) sites located at Bangor, Washington; Fort Lewis, Washington; and Naval Air Station, Pensacola, Florida. The dissolved hydrogen (DH) analyzer was designed to measure dissolved hydrogen concentrations in groundwater. The concentration of DH determines the terminal electron accepting processes (TEAP) responsible for contaminant biodegradation at a site, and hence its monitored natural attenuation (MNA) capacity. The main objectives of the demonstrations were to validate the DH analyzer by determining the correlation between the results it produces and those obtained using standard bubble strip/reduction gas analyzer method; and quantifying operational costs. The performance of the DH analyzer was evaluated based on the following criteria: accuracy, range, precision, sample throughput, mechanical reliability, and versatility. The demonstrations indicated that further development of the DH analyzer is required before it can be made commercially available, including development of better sensors, addition of better adsorbents for removing interfering gases, and improvement of mechanical stability.
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XRF Technologies for Measuring Trace Elements in Soil and Sediment (2005)
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program evaluated eight field-portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometers for the analysis of trace metals in soil and sediment. The field demonstrations of each instrument were performed at the Kennedy Space Center on Merritt Island, Florida. The full reports for each technology can be found at the SITE homepage (http://www.epa.gov/ORD/SITE/). Each report provides a description of the technology, an in depth analysis of the application of the technology, and results from the demonstration. The XRF spectrometers evaluated during the demonstration include:
  1. The XLt 700 series developed by Niton
  2. The XLi 700 series developed by Niton
  3. XT400 developed by Innov-X
  4. X-Met 3000TX developed by Oxford
  5. ED2000 developed by Oxford
  6. ZSX Mini II developed by Rigaku
  7. PicoTAX developed by Rontec
  8. ElvaX developed by Xcalibur

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Site Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System (SCAPS) Heavy Metal Sensors (2003)
This report describes the results from an evaluation of three direct push metal sensor technologies conducted as part of a series of comprehensive side-by-side field and laboratory evaluations. The three technologies consist of two sensor systems based on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and one system based on x-ray fluorescence (XRF). Field evaluations were conducted at the following four sites: Lake City Army Ammunition Plant, MO; Naval Air Station North Island, CA; Hunters Point Shipyard, CA; and Camp Beller, MS. The three sensors were compared against results using inductively-coupled plasma (ICP) laboratory analyses of discrete samples, and showed mean accuracy of 91.7%, 97%, and 97%, respectively, for XRF, fiber optic LIBS, and downhole laser LIBS.
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Benthic Flux Sampling Device for Marine Sediments (2000)
This Environmental Security Technology Certificate Program (ESTCP) report presents the results of the Benthic Flux Sampling Device (BFSD2), which was used to measure contaminant fluxes from marine sediments at DOD/Navy sites in San Diego Bay and Pearl Harbor. Variations in chemical and physical properties of sediment make it predicting contaminant mobility (or flux) challenging. Knowledge of the degree to which contaminants remobilize is important in selecting cost-effective remedial actions. The BFSD2 is fundamentally a sample collection instrument to measure contaminant mobility across the sediment-water interface by isolating a volume of water above the sediment and drawing samples from the water. The BFSD2 is easily lowered into the water, can operate at depths of 50 meters, and is capable of real-time video imaging. The two demonstrations showed consistent performance and the ability of the BFSD2 to measure trace metal mobility at distinctly different sites.
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X-Ray, K-Edge Detection System for Piping and Ducts (2000)
The X-Ray, K-Edge Heavy Metal Detection System uses a C-frame inspection head with an X-ray tube mounted on one side of the frame and an imaging unit and high purity germanium detector mounted on the other side. A broad spectrum of X-rays is directed from the X-ray tube through containerized holdup material to the imaging unit's phosphor screen. System operators use results to calculate the total amount of contaminants in each section of a container. At the Savannah River Site's 321-M fuel fabrication facility, the system was used to determine the type and amount of heavy metal contaminants, such as uranium, in facility ventilation ducts and pipes.
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Bioluminescent Toxicity Test for Marine Sediments (1999)
This report is part of the Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center's TechData Sheet series. In 1999, a rapid bioassay system (QwikSed), developed by the Navy was field tested at two sites located at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii and Alameda Harbor, California. Both sites were contaminated with heavy metals but the Pearl Harbor site also contained PAHs. QwikSed bioassays evaluate both acute and sublethal effects from exposure to a variety of toxic chemicals and may be used as a quick sediment characterization tool. The basis of detection is to measure a reduction of light from a bioluminescent dinoflagellate following exposure to toxic chemicals.
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X-Ray Fluorescence Rapid Sediment Characterization Tool (1999)
This report is part of the Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center's TechData Sheet series. In 1999, portable XRF instruments were used at the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center, located in San Diego, California to field screen wet, heterogeneous sediment. Samples are exposed to x-ray energy, which liberates electrons in the inner shell of metal atoms. As the outer electrons move towards the inner shells to fill vacancies, energy is released or fluoresced. The fluorescing energy spectrum identifies the metals and the intensity is proportional to the concentration in the sample.
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X-Ray Fluorescence Analyzer for Soil (1995)
This report is part of EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Report series. The field demonstration was conducted in April 1995 at two sites: the RV Hopkins Site in Iowa and the ASARCO Site in Washington. The primary target analytes in this demonstration were arsenic, copper, lead, and zinc. The Map Spectrum Analyzer is designed to provide the rapid analysis of metals in soil. In x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, energy components of the excited x-ray spectrum are analyzed directly as an energy proportional response. Energy dispersion allows an efficient, full-spectrum measurement which enables the use of low intensity excitation sources and compact, battery-powered, field-portable electronics.
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X-Ray Fluorescence Analyzer for Soil, Sludge, and Solids (1995)
This report is part of EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Report series. The field demonstration was conducted in April 1995 at two sites: the RV Hopkins Site in Iowa and the ASARCO Site in Washington. Target analytes in this demonstration were arsenic, copper, lead, barium, chromium, nickel, cadmium, antimony, and zinc. The X-MET 920 and X-MET 940 are designed to provide the rapid analysis of metals in soil, sludge, and other solids by using a battery-operated electronics unit and a solid-state probe system, which houses two excitation sources and a lithium-drifted silicon detector. In x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, energy components of the excited x-ray spectrum are analyzed directly as an energy proportional response.
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X-Ray Fluorescence Analyzer with a Single Radioactive Source for Soil (1995)
This report is part of EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Report series. The field demonstration was conducted in April 1995 at two sites: the RV Hopkins Site in Iowa and the ASARCO Site in Washington. Target analytes in this demonstration were arsenic, copper, lead, barium, chromium, and zinc. The Niton XL Spectrum Analyzer is designed to produce quantitative data for metals contamination in soil by using a single radioactive source and a silicon pin-diode detrector. In x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, energy components of the excited x-ray spectrum are analyzed directly as an energy proportional response. Energy dispersion allows an efficient, full-spectrum measurement which enables the use of low intensity excitation sources and compact, battery-powered, field-portable electronics.
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X-Ray Fluorescence Analyzer with Lithium-Drifted Silicon Detector for Soil (1995)
This report is part of EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Report series. The field demonstration was conducted in April 1995 at two sites: the RV Hopkins Site in Iowa and the ASARCO Site in Washington. Target analytes in this demonstration were arsenic, copper, lead, barium, chromium, nickel, iron, cadmium, antimony, and zinc. The SEFA-P Analyzer is designed to provide the rapid analysis of metals in soil by using three radioactive sources with a lithium-drifted silicon detector. In x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, energy components of the excited x-ray spectrum are analyzed directly as an energy proportional response. Energy dispersion allows an efficient, full-spectrum measurement which enables the use of low intensity excitation sources and compact, battery-powered, field-portable electronics.
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X-Ray Fluorescence Analyzer with Surface Analysis Probe System for Soil, Sludge, and Solids (1995)
This report is part of EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Report series. The field demonstration was conducted in April 1995 at two sites: the RV Hopkins Site in Iowa and the ASARCO Site in Washington. Target analytes in this demonstration were arsenic, copper, lead, barium, chromium, cadmium, antimony, and zinc. The X-MET 920-MP is designed to provide the rapid analysis of metals in soil, sludge, and other solids by using a laptop computer, an electronics unit, and a surface analysis probe system, which houses one excitation source and a gas filled proportional counter detector. In x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, energy components of the excited x-ray spectrum are analyzed directly as an energy proportional response. Energy dispersion allows an efficient, full-spectrum measurement which enables the use of low intensity excitation sources and compact, battery-powered, field-portable electronics.
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X-Ray Fluorescence Analyzers with Mercuric Iodide Semiconductor Detectors for Lead and Other Metals in Soil (1995)
This report is part of EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Report series. The field demonstration was conducted in April 1995 using the Spectrace TN 9000 and Spectrace TN Pb Analyzer at two sites: the RV Hopkins Site in Iowa and the ASARCO Site in Washington. Target analytes for the TN 9000 were arsenic, copper, lead, barium, chromium, nickel, antimony, and zinc, while the TN Pb Analyzer targeted arsenic, copper, lead, chromium, and zinc. The TN 9000 uses up to three radioactive sources; the TN Pb Analyzer uses a single radioactive source (cadmium-109). Both models use a mercuric iodide semiconductor detector for the analysis of metals in soil. In x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, energy components of the excited x-ray spectrum are analyzed directly as an energy proportional response. Energy dispersion allows an efficient, full-spectrum measurement which enables the use of low intensity excitation sources and compact, battery-powered, field-portable electronics.
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Organic Chemical Characterization

Demonstration/Validation of the Snap Sampler (2011)   Newly Posted!
This cost and performance report was prepared by the United States Army Corps of Engineers. It describes two demonstration studies conducted to evaluate the use of a regenerative cellulose passive diffusion groundwater sampling device, the Snap Sampler, to collect samples to be analyzed for inorganic and organic chemical concentrations. Field demonstrations were conducted at two demonstration sites: (1) the former Pease Air Force Base (AFB) in Portsmouth, New Hampshire and (2) the former McClellan AFB located in Sacramento, California. The primary objectives of the demonstration studies was to demonstrate and validate the use of the Snap Sampler as a groundwater sampling device for the collection of samples for laboratory analysis of organic and inorganic chemical analytes. Analytical results for samples collected using the Snap Sampler were compared to results for samples collected using the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Region 1’s (1996) low-flow purging and sampling protocol. At each field demonstration location, the Snap Sampler was deployed to collect groundwater samples which were analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and dissolved inorganics. Analyte concentrations identified using the Snap Sampler were not statistically/significantly different from concentrations detected using the EPA Region 1’s low-flow purging protocol, with the exception of total iron and total manganese. The report includes information regarding demonstration conditions, performance assessment results, cost assessment results, and issues encountered during the deployment of the Snap Sampler.
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Application of Nucleic Acid-Based Tools for Monitoring Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA), Biostimulation, and Bioaugmentation at Chlorinated Solvent Sites (2010)   Newly Posted!
This cost and performance report was prepared by the Department of Defense (DoD) Environmental Security Technology Certification Program. It describes a demonstration where the use of nucleic acid-based tools were used to identify chlorinated solvent contaminant sites where long-term monitored natural attenuation (MNA) was appropriate by detecting and quantifying bacteria-specific biomarker genes indicative of anaerobic bioremediation. Field demonstrations were conducted at six DoD sites undergoing MNA remediation or biostimulation. The primary objectives of the demonstration were to (1) evaluate the use of nucleic acid-based tools in identifying sites suitable to MNA, (2) predict sites that would be amendable to biostimulation, (3) predict sites where biodegradation is not suitable, and (4) provide a guidance protocol to remedial project managers (RPMs) and contractors on the use of nucleic acid-based tools. During this demonstration, methods of groundwater sample collection were evaluated, nucleic acid-based tools were used to identify bacteria-specific biomarker genes, and the study data was evaluated to identify correlations between the amounts of specific biomarker genes detected in demonstration samples to the reduction of contaminant concentrations at the sites. The use of nucleic acid-based tools was found to be reliable for determining anaerobic bioremediation conditions. The report includes information regarding performance assessment, cost assessment, and implementation issues associated with using nucleic acid-based tools. The report also provides a guidance protocol to advise RPMs and contractors on how to apply nucleic acid-based technology for site characterization at DoD contaminated sites.
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Demonstration and Validation of a Regenerated Cellulose Dialysis Membrane Diffusion Sampler for Monitoring Groundwater Quality and Remediation Progress at Department of Defense (DoD) Sites (2010)
This cost and performance report was prepared by the DoD's Environmental Security Technology Certification Program. It describes a demonstration study conducted to evaluate the use of Regenerated Cellulose Dialysis Membrane (RCDM) diffusion samplers to collect groundwater samples to measure several inorganic and organic water quality parameters. Field demonstrations were conducted at three DoD sites: (1) Naval Air Engineering Station (NAES) Lakehurst, New Jersey; (2) Naval Base Ventura County (NBVC), Port Hueneme and Point Mugu, California; and (3) Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) West Trenton, New Jersey. The primary objectives of the demonstration were to determine if the RCDM sampler could effectively collect samples for a variety of organic and inorganic constituents, identify the optimum equilibration period needed for these constituents to diffuse across the RCDM, and compare RCDM sampling efficiency and costs with other sampling techniques such as low-flow (LF) purging and polyethylene diffusion bag (PDB) samplers. At each field demonstration, groundwater was sampled using all three sampling methods. The RCDM sampler achieved similar concentration results compared to LF and PDB samplers. In addition, collecting water samples using the RCDM was found to cost less compared to sample collection using the other two sampling strategies. The report also includes information regarding demonstration design, performance assessment, cost assessment, and implementation issues associated with the RCDM samplers.
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Use and Measurement of Mass Flux and Mass Discharge (2010)
This Interstate Technology and Regulatory Agency (ITRC) technology overview summarizes the concepts underlying mass discharge and flux, their potential application for site remediation, and methods of measurement. Potential applications described within the document include the use of mass flux and discharge in site characterization, remedy selection and design, performance monitoring and optimization, compliance monitoring, and site prioritization. In addition, the document presents several case studies and summarizes their general findings including the impact of mass discharge and flux on decision-making and remediation costs. Several conceptual site models (CSM) using mass flux and mass discharge are presented. Overall findings showed that mass discharge and flux estimates have been useful in achieving several site management objectives and that evaluating mass discharge and flux can improve CSMs and lead to more efficient remediation.
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Quantifying In Situ Metal and Organic Contaminant Mobility in Marine Sediments (2009)
This report, a cost and performance report prepared by the Environmental Security Technology Certification Program of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), describes the Benthic Flux Sampling Device (BFSD2), a unique instrument used to measure contaminant fluxes from marine sediments. This report describes demonstrations of BFSD2 at sites in San Diego Bay (Paleta Creek) and Pearl Harbor (Middle Loch and Bishop Point). The two demonstrations offered different validation opportunities: San Diego Bay was used to show instrument repeatability and the ability for comparisons with historical trends, and Pearl Harbor was used to show capabilities for identifying site differences and supporting geochemical trend analysis. Demonstration design, performance assessment, cost assessment, and implementation issues are addressed in this report. This cost and performance report is a companion to the "Quantifying In Situ Metal and Organic Contaminant Mobility in Marine Sediments-Final Report."
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A Guide for Assessing Biodegradation and Source Identification of Organic Ground Water Contaminants using Compound Specific Isotope Analysis (CSIA) (2008)
This report, prepared by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), provides a guide to the use of Compound Specific Isotope Analysis (CSIA) to examine organic groundwater contaminants. CSIA can improve our understanding of the behavior of organic contaminants at hazardous waste sites. This report includes nine sections with additional references, tables and figures. The first two sections introduce the CSIA process and describe the benefits and value of data provided by CSIA. The next two sections explain different collection methods and strategies based on varying contaminants, plume size, location, and other factors. The remaining five sections provide recommendations for potential site and project managers, contractors or chemical analysts for CSIA data interpretation and application. In addition, this report provides information about various demonstration designs where CSIA has been used effectively to characterize a site.
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Performance of the CAPE Technologies DF1 Dioxin/Furan Immunoassay Kit for Soil and Sediment Samples (2008)
This report describes the experimental design, analytical methods used, and the comparisons of the total dioxin/furan toxicity equivalents (TEQD/F) results from the high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) data to those reported by CAPE Technologies of the site-specific study conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program. Originally (in 2004), a demonstration of screening technologies was performed to determine the presence of dioxin and dioxin-like compounds in soil and sediment in Saginaw, Michigan. The objectives of this demonstration included evaluating the accuracy, sample throughput, cost, and other parameters of each participating technology. It also included an assessment of the results the technologies provided compared to those generated by established laboratory methods using HRMS. One of the participants in this study, CAPE Technologies, demonstrated the use of the DF1 Dioxin/Furan Immunoassay Kit and is the focus of this report. Correlation between DF1 TEQD/F and HRMS TEQD/F results are discussed, along with the accuracy and precision of the test results. A comparison of the DF1 kit's performance in the original SITE demonstration and this site-specific case study is also presented.
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Radon-222 as Natural Tracer for Monitoring the Remediation of NAPL Contamination in the Subsurface (2008)
This document, a cost and performance report prepared by the Environmental Security Technology Certification Program of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), describes the use of naturally occurring radon-222 (Rn) as a partitioning tracer for locating and quantifying NAPL contamination in the subsurface and for monitoring changes in NAPL quantities resulting from remediation activities. Two methods of using Rn were evaluated in the study, a "static" method that involves the monitoring of NAPL concentrations in groundwater samples and a "dynamic" method using single well push-pull tests. This demonstration was performed because of the current challenges with accurately and inexpensively locating and quantifying NAPL contamination. This report provides detailed information on the technology, including background information on the use of partitioning tracer tests for NAPL characterization. It also describes the use of static and dynamic Rn sampling for detecting and quantifying NAPL contamination in the subsurface and reviews the advantages and limitations of the technology. In addition it provides information of the demonstration design such as performance objectives, test site, and facilities.
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User's Guide to the Collection and Analysis of Tree Cores to Assess the Distribution of Subsurface Volatile Organic Compounds (2008)
This report, prepared by the U.S. Department of the Interior and the U.S. Geologic Survey, provides a guide to the use of tree coring as a tool to examine subsurface Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). Determining the presence and extent of subsurface VOCs is useful for evaluating the potential risks to human health from ingestion of ground water and the potential for respiration risks from vapor intrusion into buildings. The report is divided into two parts with additional references and two appendices. The first part focuses on the methodology for collecting and analyzing tree cores. The second part focuses on the historical perspectives and technical considerations related to tree coring as a tool to examine subsurface contamination. The technical considerations include rationale for various aspects of the methodology and a discussion of the factors influencing VOC concentrations in tree cores. The two appendices attached include a collection of various case studies and an air sample analysis for VOCs prepared by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
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Interim Report on the Evolution and Performance of the Eichrom Technologies Procept® Rapid Dioxin Assay for Soil and Sediment Samples (2007)
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program evaluated the Eichrom Technologies Procept® Rapid Dioxin Assay to determine its accuracy in detecting dioxin and dioxin-like compounds in soil and sediment. This report describes the experimental design of the study, the analytical methods used, and compares the total dioxin/furan toxicity equivalents results generated by established laboratory methods using high-resolution mass spectrometry to those reported by Eichrom Technologies Procept® Rapid Dioxin Assay. Based on the results of the study it was determined that the Procept® Rapid Dioxin Assay could be an effective screening tool to determine areas of greatest concern for cleanup at a site and could help to minimize the number of more expensive analyses needed for specific analytes.
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Protocol for Use of Five Passive Samplers to Sample for a Variety of Contaminants in Groundwater (2007)
This report provides protocols for the use of five passive groundwater sampling technologies. Passive samplers, which remain submerged during a deployment period, collect groundwater samples as water passes through them. Each sampler is placed at a discrete position within a well. This document also discusses regulatory perspectives related to the use of passive sampling technologies and provides brief case histories involving implementation of each technology. The technologies described in the document include the following:
  1. Snap Sampler™ (grab-type well water samplers)
  2. Hydrasleeve™ (grab-type well water samplers)
  3. Regenerated-cellulose dialysis membrane sampler
  4. Rigid, porous polyethylene sampler (diffusion/equilibrium-type samplers)
  5. GORE™ Module (a diffusion and sorption-type sampler)

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Fiber Optic Biosensors (2006)
This report, a cost and performance report prepared by the Environmental Security Technology Certification Program of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), describes the technology and process for applying fiber-optic-based biosensors for detecting organic groundwater contaminants. This report describes a demonstration of biosensors at a DoD site near Silverdale, Washington to monitor groundwater contaminants. A primary issue regarding the use of biosensors is reliability, so this demonstration focused on satisfying the following specific objectives: (1) demonstrating the accuracy, reliability, and cost of biosensors, (2) demonstrating the effectiveness of on-site field measurements using biosensors, (3) determining operational limits associated with using the biosensors, and (4) transferring the biosensor technology to end users. This demonstration showed that with further development, biosensors can be valuable tools for providing accurate field analyses.
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Technology Overview of Passive Sampler Technologies (2006)
This Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council (ITRC) report provides technical overviews of 12 passive sampling technologies. The overviews for each technology provide a basis of operation, its intended applications, its advantages and limitations, and its development status. The passive sampling technologies are primarily intended for groundwater monitoring wells but many of them also can be used for surface water and/or vapor sampling. Technologies described in this report include the following that passively recover a grab sample of well water:
  1. HydraSleeve™ Samplers
  2. Snap Sampler™
The report describes the following technologies that rely on diffusion of the analytes into the sampler to reach and maintain equilibrium with the sampled medium:
  1. Regenerated-Cellulose Dialysis Membrane Samplers
  2. Nylon-Screen Passive Diffusion Samplers (NSPDS)
  3. Passive Vapor Diffusion Samplers (PVDs)
  4. Peeper Samplers
  5. Polyethylene Diffusion Bag Samplers (PDBs)
  6. Rigid Porous Polyethylene Samplers (RPPS)
The report also describes the following technologies that rely on diffusion and sorption to accumulate analytes in the sampler:
  1. Semi-Permeable Membrane Devices (SPMDs)
  2. GORE™ Sorber Module
  3. Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCIS)
  4. Passive In-Situ Concentration Extraction Sampler (PISCES)

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Sensors Case study: Automated Sampling and Analysis of Trichloroethene and Hexavalent Chromium Using the Burge System at the North Indian Bend Wash and Nevada Test Sites (2005)
This case study discusses the performance of two modifiable automated sampling and analysis platforms. One of the platforms is an optrode based system developed to analyze trichloroethene (TCE) and the other is a non-optrode based colorimetric system developed to analyze hexavalent chromium (Cr-VI). This case study describes the implementation of the optrode system at the North Indian Bend Wash Superfund site, where influent and effluent from a groundwater treatment plant was analyzed for TCE. The case study also includes a description of the use of a non-optrode system to monitor groundwater for Cr-VI at a Nevada Test Site. Results and lessons learned are presented for both sites. This case study is a part of the EPA's "Sensor Technology Used During Site Remediation Activities — Selected Experiences" report and can be found in Appendix 6 of that report.
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Sensors Case Study: Use of Membrane Interface Probe Technology for Detection of VOCs at the Sol Lynn/Industrial Transformer Superfund Site (2005)
This case study describes the use of membrane interface probe (MIP) technology at the Sol Lynn/Industrial Transformer Superfund site, Houston, Texas. The MIP was used to detect subsurface volatile organic compounds during the supplemental remedial investigation for the site. MIPs are used in tandem with electrical conductivity (EC) sensors to measure soil EC and map the stratigraphy. MIP exploration was conducted at 99 locations between January 17, 2001, and June 5, 2001. Real time results made it possible to employ a dynamic method of site investigation that steered locations of subsequent investigations. MIP showed limited use as a quantitative tool. This case study is a part of the EPA's "Sensor Technology Used During Site Remediation Activities – Selected Experiences" report and can be found in Appendix 1 of that report.
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Performance Monitoring of MNA Remedies for VOCs in Ground Water (2004)
This report compiled by EPA’s Office of Research and Development (ORD) describes data needs and evaluation methods useful for designing monitoring networks, based on natural attenuation processes and determining the effectiveness of the remedies. Effective monitoring of natural attenuation processes includes routine evaluations of institutional controls and measurements of contaminant, geochemical, and hydrologic parameters. These data can provide information about changes in three-dimensional plume boundaries, contaminant mass and concentration, and hydrological and geochemical changes that may indicate changes in performance of the remedy.
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Site Characterization Technologies for DNAPL Investigations (2004)
This report compiled by EPA's Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation (OSRTI) provides a summary of information on the current state of technologies available for locating and characterizing sites contaminated with dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). The report is intended to help site managers identify suitable site characterization technologies, screen the technologies for potential application at their sites, learn about technology applications at similar sites, and locate additional information on these technologies. The report recommends the Triad approach for planning investigations and reducing project time and costs at sites with potential or known DNAPL contaminations. The report discusses both geophysical and non-geophysical techniques for DNAPL characterization. Geophysical techniques described in the report include borehole methods; electrical methods; electromagnetic methods; ground penetrating radar; magnetics; and seismic methods. Non-geophysical techniques described in the report include diffusion sampling; direct push technologies such as cone penetrometer; in situ groundwater sampling using a BAT® direct push probe or a depth-discrete sampling device such as the Waterloo Profiler®; hydrophobic dyes such as Sudan IV or Red Oil O; DNAPL partitioning tests such as partitioning interwell tracer test (PITT); and soil gas profiling.
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Strategies for Monitoring the Performance of DNAPL Source Zone Remedies (2004)
This report published by the Interstate Technology & Research Council (ITRC) is intended to inform regulators and others about approaches to performance monitoring of various in situ technologies for treatment of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). The document discusses various issues related to DNAPLs, including the challenge of accurately characterizing DNAPL sites, health and safety issues, as well as regulatory concerns at contaminated sites. The document also describes methods to quantify performance of a treatment technology and ways to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of a remedial action in attaining remediation objectives. Case studies are presented that highlight various approaches to performance assessment being used to measure success at recent DNAPL source zone treatment projects; remedial goals and objectives; performance monitoring and verification; and lessons learned.
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Technical and Regulatory Guidance for Using Polyethylene Diffusion Bag Samplers to Monitor Volatile Organic Compounds in Groundwater (2004)
This report published by the Interstate Technology & Research Council (ITRC) is designed to help regulators and others understand the correct uses, applications, and limitations of Polyethylene Diffusion Bag (PDB) sampling. This document provides guidance to facilitate the use of PDB samplers, particularly for long-term monitoring programs. PDB samplers are low-density polyethylene bags containing deionized water that are used to collect water samples in groundwater wells for laboratory analyses of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). VOCs in the groundwater passively diffuse across the bag material barrier until contaminant concentrations within the bag reach equilibrium with those in the surrounding groundwater. PDB samplers cannot be used to sample for metals and inorganic compounds.
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Emerging Sensor Technologies for Facilitating Long-Term Groundwater Monitoring of VOCs (2003)
This report, prepared by EPA's Technology Innovation Program, provides information about the status of emerging sensor technologies for facilitating long-term monitoring of VOCs in groundwater. Technologies consist of those that provide in situ sampling and analysis of VOCs in groundwater (i.e., within a monitoring well); commercialized technologies that automate both sampling and above-ground analysis; and hand-held or otherwise field-portable instruments that can be used for analysis at the well where the sample is obtained. The report discusses 10 technologies, including specific products, expected cost, and project contacts.
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Guidance on the Use of Passive-Vapor-Diffusion Samplers to Detect Volatile Organic Compounds in Ground-Water-Discharge Areas, and Example Applications in New England (2002)
This report describes the use of polyethylene-membrane passive-vapor-diffusion (PVD) samplers to detect and identify volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in sediments at nine hazardous waste sites in New England with varying hydrologic settings. PVD samplers consist of an empty glass vial enclosed in two layers of polyethylene membrane tubing. When placed in sediments, the air in the vial equilibrates with VOCs in the pore water, and analysis of the vapors provides information about the VOCs present in the sediment. The sites evaluated in New England included rivers, streams, ponds, wetlands, and coastal shorelines. Results of PVD sampling at these sites confirmed the presence and extent of VOC-contaminated groundwater discharge areas where contaminated groundwater was known, and identified areas of VOC-contaminated groundwater that were previously unknown. VOCs detected were primarily chlorinated and petroleum hydrocarbons.
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Real-time VOC Analysis Using a Field Portable GC/MS (2001)
This report was prepared by EPA's Technology Innovation Program to describe the results from use of the INFICON HAPSITE gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) to measure VOCs in groundwater on a real-time basis. The instrument was used by the USACE to analyze groundwater samples collected in 1999 from soil borings and monitoring wells at the Monterey Peninsula Airport, in California, for on-site analysis of VOCs, particularly TCE. The results from the on-site analyses were compared with groundwater samples sent to a conventional off-site laboratory for analysis. The HAPSITE instrument was used again at the airport in 2001 for real-time characterization of the vertical extent of TCE contamination.
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Ribbon Sampler for DNAPL (2000)
The Ribbon NAPL Sampler is a sampling device that can provide detailed delineation of DNAPL in a borehole. With this device, a dye-impregnated ribbon is inserted in a borehole with an inflatable liner. The liner is inflated against the wall of the borehole and the ribbon absorbs the DNAPL that it contacts, resulting a color change in the ribbon. The presence of DNAPL is indicated by red marks on the ribbon. The Ribbon NAPL Sampler was used for site characterization at three DOE sites and one Superfund site.
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Tri-Service Site Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System (SCAPS) Membrane Interface Probe (2000)
This report describes a demonstration of the Membrane Interface Probe (MIP) for analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) conducted primarily at the Naval Air Station (NAS) North Island, Coronado, CA, from April to May 2000. The purpose was to demonstrate the performance of the MIP in characterizing the extent of subsurface contamination in a single field deployment. The report also briefly describes use of the MIP in other demonstrations such as at the DOE Savannah River Site. The system demonstrated uses a commercially available MIP to collect vapor samples from the subsurface. Samples are collected through a permeable membrane into a helium carrier gas that transports the sample above-ground for real-time analysis by an ion trap mass spectrometer. In this demonstration, a total of 493 groundwater samples from 28 locations were analyzed over a 15 day period.
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UV Fluorescence for Marine Sediment (2000)
This report is part of the Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center's TechData Sheet series. In 2000, a deep-water pier at NAS Alameda was investigated using UVF as a technique to detect PAHs in sediment. UVF is a method of field screening PAH contaminant distribution in sediment and other matrices. UV light is passed through a sample, which emits light or fluoresces proportional to the concentration of the fluorescent molecule in the sample. UVF is based on the measurement of fluorescence observed following UV excitation of organic solvent extracts of sediment.
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Bladder Pump and Pump Cycle Controller for Groundwater (1999)
This report is part of EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Report series. The verification test was conducted in August 1999, at the U.S. Geological Survey Hydrogeological Instrumentation Facility at the NASA Stennis Space Center in southwestern Mississippi using water samples containing 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethene, trichloroethene, benzene, 1,1,2-trichloroethane, and tetrachloroethene. The Micro-Flo bladder pump consists of an internal flexible bladder that is situated within a stainless steel body pump. The pump is lowered into the well and the bladder is filled with water from the hydrostatic pressure exerted by the standing water column. Once the bladder has been filled, compressed air or nitrogen gas drives the water through Teflon tubing to the pump and then to the surface, causing the compression of the bladder. The pumping sequence is regulated using a pneumatic controller positioned at the wellhead to achieve the desired sample flow rate.
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Diffusion Membrane Samplers for Groundwater (1999)
This report is part of the Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center's TechData Sheet series and presents the results from a 1999 Engineering Field Division South pilot test, using diffusion samplers at Naval Support Activity Mid-South to collect groundwater samples containing VOCs, without disturbing the groundwater. The diffusion samplers consist of polyethylene bags containing deionized water, which are submerged in a well and allowed to equilibrate. The samplers are removed and the water samples may be analyzed.
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GORE-SORBER Grab Sampler for Groundwater (1999)
This report is part of EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Report series. The verification test was conducted in August 1999 at the U.S. Geological Survey Hydrogeological Instrumentation Facility at the NASA Stennis Space Center in southwestern Mississippi using water samples containing 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethene, trichloroethene, benzene, 1,1,2-trichloroethane, and tetrachloroethene. The Gore-Sorber module consists of a water-impermeable membrane surrounding an adsorbent material that is used to collect volatile and semi-volatile compounds in water. The module consists of a microporous membrane cord and four separate adsorbents consisting of polymeric and carbonaceous resins, which have an affinity for a broad range of VOCs and SVOCs. The membrane is hydrophobic and prohibits the transfer of water across the membrane, while facilitating vapor transfer, allowing VOC and SVOC vapors to penetrate the sorbent module and collect on the adsorbent material. The sampling module is attached to a string and weighted. The module is then lowered into a well and left in place for 48 hours. Upon retrieval the samples are placed in airtight containers and sent to a laboratory for analysis.
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Kabis Sampler Grab Sampler for Groundwater (1999)
This report is part of EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Report series. The verification test was conducted in August 1999, at the U.S. Geological Survey Hydrogeological Instrumentation Facility at the NASA Stennis Space Center in southwestern Mississippi using water samples containing 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethene, trichloroethene, benzene, 1,1,2-trichloroethane, and tetrachloroethene. The Kabis Sampler is a discrete-level, grab sampler. The samplers have a removable top into which either one (Model I) or three (Model II) 40-mL VOA vials are inserted prior to deployment into the well. The sampler is attached to a measuring tape and is manually lowered into the well. When the sampler is held stationary in the water column at the desired sampling depth, it fills under hydrostatic pressure. Air exits the exhaust port as the sample vials fill with water and the vials are flushed with approximately 6 vial volumes prior to the collection of the final volume. Once the vials have been filled, the sampler is retrieved and the vials can be removed, preserved, and capped.
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Multi-level Sampler for Groundwater (1999)
This report is part of EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Report series. The verification test was conducted in August 1999, at the U.S. Geological Survey Hydrogeological Instrumentation Facility at the NASA Stennis Space Center in southwestern Mississippi using water samples containing 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethene, trichloroethene, benzene, 1,1,2-trichloroethane, and tetrachloroethene. The Multiprobe 100 is a discrete, multi-level sampler that is designed for permanent deployment in a well. The instrument works by inserting a lower sampling module into the water column inside a groundwater monitoring well. The module is filled with water by hydrostatic pressure and the water sample is pushed up to the upper receiving module by pressurizing the sample chamber headspace with nitrogen gas. Samples can then either be manually dispensed into analysis vials for analysis or the system can be connected with an automated analyzer for sample analysis.
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SamplEase Bladder Pump for Groundwater (1999)
This report is part of EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Report series. The verification test was conducted in August 1999, at the U.S. Geological Survey Hydrogeological Instrumentation Facility at the NASA Stennis Space Center in southwestern Mississippi using water samples containing 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethene, trichloroethene, benzene, 1,1,2-trichloroethane, and tetrachloroethene. The SamplEase bladder pump consists of an internal Teflon bladder that is situated within a stainless steel body pump. The pump is lowered into the well and the bladder is filled with water from the hydrostatic pressure exerted by the standing water column. Once the bladder has been filled, compressed air or nitrogen gas drives the water through Teflon tubing to the pump and then to the surface, causing the compression of the bladder. The pumping sequence is regulated using a pneumatic controller positioned at the wellhead to achieve the desired sample flow rate.
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Well Wizard Bladder Pump for Groundwater (1999)
This report is part of EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Report series. The verification test was conducted in August 1999, at the U.S. Geological Survey Hydrogeological Instrumentation Facility at the NASA Stennis Space Center in southwestern Mississippi using water samples containing 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethene, trichloroethene, benzene, 1,1,2-trichloroethane, and tetrachloroethene. The Well Wizard bladder pump consists of an internal flexible bladder that is situated within a stainless steel body pump. The pump is lowered into the well and the bladder is filled with water from the hydrostatic pressure exerted by the standing water column. Once the bladder has been filled, compressed air or nitrogen gas drives the water through Teflon tubing to the pump and then to the surface, causing the compression of the bladder. The pumping sequence is regulated using a pneumatic controller positioned at the wellhead to achieve the desired sample flow rate.
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Direct Sampling Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry for Soil and Groundwater (1998)
Direct sampling ion trap mass spectrometry (DSITMS) introduces sample materials directly into an ion trap mass spectrometer by a simple interface, such as a capillary restrictor or a polymer membrane. Typically, little, if any, sample preparation or chromatic separation of the sample constituents is required. The objective of DSITMS is rapid detection and quantitative measurement of VOCs and SVOCs in groundwater, soil, and gaseous remediation streams at hazardous waste sites. DSITMS has been used at numerous DOE and DoD sites over the past few years; this report focuses on three of the applications for analysis of groundwater.
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Surface Acoustic Wave GC System for Air, Soil and Groundwater (1998)
DOE/Innovative Technology Summary Report; July 1998 Surface acoustic wave/gas chromatography (SAW/GC) is a system for collecting real-time field screening data for characterization of vapor streams contaminated with VOCs. The Model 4100 SAW/GC consists of a handheld module containing a piezoelectric surface acoustic wave sensor, a capillary GC, an air pump, a 6-way GC valve, and a support module. The Model 4100 SAW/GC has been demonstrated and evaluated at a number of DOE sites to verify its performance under a number of different applications. It can be used in a field-screening mode to produce chromatograms in 10 seconds.
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Tri-Service Site Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System (SCAPS) Hydrosparge Volatile Organic Compound Sensor (1998)
This report describes a demonstration of the Hydrosparge volatile organic compound (VOC) sensor conducted at the Naval Air Station (NAS) North Island, Coronado, CA, in July 1998. The purpose was to demonstrate the performance of the sensor in characterizing the extent of groundwater contamination in a single field deployment and to evaluate the sensor with regard to the accuracy of analytical results, time required to characterize the extent of contamination, and reliability and ruggedness. The Hydrosparge VOC sensor uses a commercially available direct push sampling tool. The sparge module is lowered directly into the groundwater and purges VOC analytes in situ with helium gas bubbles. VOCs are carried via tubing to a surface-deployed ion trap mass spectrometer where the contaminants are analyzed. In this demonstration, a total of 115 groundwater samples from 50 locations were analyzed and compared with the results from sampling 8 conventional groundwater monitoring wells.
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Tri-Service Site Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System (SCAPS) Thermal Desorption Sampler for Volatile Organic Compounds (1998)
This report describes a demonstration of the Thermal Desorption Sampler (TDS) for analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in soils conducted at five DoD facilities located in diverse geological conditions from June 1996 to August 1998. The TDS performs field screening to determine the presence or absence of VOCs within the unstaurated subsurface soils at a site. In addition, when used with an ion trap mass spectrometer (ITMS), the TDS provides identification of specific analytes and estimates their concentrations. The TDS captures a known volume of subsurface soil in situ, and purges the VOC contaminants with helium carrier gas while heating the soil. The VOCs in the carrier gas are then collected on a sorbent trap that concentrates the VOCs prior to analysis by ITMS. In this demonstration, a total of 170 TDS samples were collected and analyzed. To verify the TDS results, more than 600 verification samples were collected and shipped to off-site laboratories for analysis.
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Vertical Profiling at Nellis Air Force Base, Site 46, Las Vegas, NV (1998)
This report describes results from a field demonstration at Site 46 of Nellis AFB conducted using PneuLog® vertical profiling technology. Site 46 is the location of JP-4 jet fuel spills (approximately 2,000 gallons each) that occurred between 1954 and 1982 as well as chlorinated solvent contamination. The goals for the demonstration were to characterize the soils in the vadose zone, determine the extent of solvent contamination, install SVE wells and temporarily operate them on the most highly-contaminated soils, and develop a remedial strategy. Further, the demonstration was to accomplish these goals in a shorter time period than would be used in a more traditional site characterization approach. The use of pneumatic well logging and an on-site GC provided a definitive direction in which to seek the source of TCE observed in groundwater. The site characterization and SVE design using the PneuLog® approach were completed in approximately 2 months.
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Field-Portable GC with Electron Capture Detection and Computer Notebook for Groundwater (1997)
This report is part of EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Report series. The field demonstration was conducted at DOE's Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina and the McClellan Air Force Base near Sacramento, California in September 1997 using water samples containing trichloroethene, tetrachloroethene, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,1,2-trichloroethane, 1,2-dichloropropane, and trans-1,3-dichloropropene. The Scentograph II incorporates a purge and trap unit, a GC, and a notebook computer for analysis of VOCs in water. The Scentograph II contains a gas column, which separates the sample into individual components. The electron capture detector measures the change in electron current from a sealed radioactive source as compounds exit the gas column. Compounds are identified by matching the column retention time of known controlled target compounds to those of the sample.
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Field-Portable GC with Electron Capture Detection for Groundwater (1997)
This report is part of EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Report series. The field demonstration was conducted at DOE's Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina and the McClellan Air Force Base near Sacramento, California in September 1997 using groundwater samples containing trichloroethene, tetrachloroethene, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,1,2-trichloroethane, 1,2-dichloropropane, and trans-1,3-dichloropropene. The Voyager is a portable gas chromatograph which separates the sample into individual components. The electron capture detector measures the change in electron current from a sealed radioactive source as compounds exit the gas column. Compounds are identified by matching the column retention time of known controlled target compounds to those of the sample.
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Field-Portable GC/MS with Headspace Sampling Accessory for Groundwater (1997)
This report is part of EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Report series. The field demonstration was conducted in September 1997 at DOE's Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina and the McClellan Air Force Base near Sacramento, California using groundwater samples containing trichloroethene, tetrachloroethene, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,1,2-trichloroethane, 1,2-dichloropropane, and trans-1,3-dichloropropene. The field portable HAPSITE with headspace sampling accessory combines gas chromatography with mass spectrometry and allows the rapid separation and identification of compounds in complex mixtures. Gas chromatography separates the sample into individual components, which are introduced to the electron impact source module of the spectrometer, where the molecules are fragmented into ions by an electron beam. The ion fragments are further separated by mass and detected by an electron multiplier, which allows each component to be identified.
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GC with Purge-and-Trap Sample Introduction Method for Groundwater (1997)
This report is part of EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Report series. The field demonstration was conducted in September 1997 at DOE's Savannah River Site, near Aiken, South Carolina and the McClellan Air Force Base, near Sacramento, California using groundwater samples containing trichloroethene, tetrachloroethene, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,1,2-trichloroethane, 1,2-dichloropropane, and trans-1,3-dichloropropene. The Model 4100 incorporates a purge and trap sample introduction method for analysis of VOCs in water. The instrument is a single-column GC with programmable temperature control and a surface wave detector. The system uses short, capillary GC columns and a fast-response detector to finish the chromatogram in less than 30 seconds.
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Multi-gas Photoacoustic Infrared Monitor for Groundwater (1997)
This report is part of EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Report series. The field demonstration was conducted at DOE's Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina and the McClellan Air Force Base near Sacramento, California in September 1997 using groundwater samples containing trichloroethene, tetrachloroethene, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,1,2-trichloroethane, 1,2-dichloropropane, and trans-1,3-dichloropropene. The field portable Type 1312 uses photoacoustic spectroscopy to detect CVOCs in the headspace of a water sample. The vapors from the equilibrium headspace of a stirred water sample are circulated through the instrument's measurement cell. The gas in the cell is irradiated with electromagnetic energy at frequencies that correspond to resonant vibration frequencies of VOC compounds in the gas, causing a portion of the resulting energy to become excited to a higher vibrating state. Following the kinetic energy decay as the molecules relax back to a lower energy state, an acoustic wave is produced and measured with a high-sensitivity microphone.
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Passive Soil Gas Sampling System (1997)
This report is part of EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Report series. The field test was conducted in May and June 1997 at two sites: the Small Business Administration (SBA) site in Albert City, Iowa and the Chemical Sales Company site in Denver, Colorado. The VOCs detected in soil samples collected from the site include vinyl chloride, cis-1,2-DCE, 1,1,1-TCA, TCE, and PCE. The Gore-Sorber Screening Survey is a passive soil gas sampler that is designed to collect VOCs and SVOCs. The survey consists of a microporous membrane cord and four separate adsorbents consisting of polymeric and carbonaceous resins, which have an affinity for a broad range of VOCs and SVOCs. The membrane is hydrophobic and prohibits the transfer of water across the membrane, while facilitating vapor transfer, allowing VOC and SVOC vapors to penetrate the sorbent module and collect on the adsorbent material. The sampling module is lowered into a pilot hole in the soil and left in place for 48 hours. Upon retrieval the samples are placed in airtight containers and sent to a laboratory for analysis.
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Soil Gas Sampling System for Shallow Deployment (1997)
This report is part of EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Report series. The field test was conducted in May and June 1997 at two sites: the Small Business Administration (SBA) site in Albert City, Iowa and the Chemical Sales Company site in Denver, Colorado. The VOCs detected in soil samples collected from the site include vinyl chloride, cis-1,2-DCE, 1,1,1-TCA, TCE, and PCE. The EMFLUX system consists of a sample cartridge comprised of a sorbent sealed in a mesh screen, which is placed in a glass vial and manually inserted into a pilot hole in the soil. The sample cartridge is retrieved by hand and analyzed at a laboratory.
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Field Portable GC/MS with Purge and Trap device for Groundwater and Soil and Direct Injection for Soil Gas (1995)
This report is part of EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Report series. Field demonstrations were conducted in July and September 1995 at the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina and at Wurtsmith Air Force Base in Oscoda, Michigan. The primary target analytes in water, soil, and soil gas included trichloroethene, tetrachloroethene, benzene, toluene, and xylene. The SpectraTrak 672 is a GC/MS system that provides laboratory-quality performance in a transportable package. The SpectraTrak 672 may be used to provide rapid screening data or laboratory quality confirmatory analysis in the field. The gas chromatograph separates the sample extract into individual components and the mass spectrometer ionizes each component, which provides the energy to fragment the molecules into characteristic ions. The ions are separated by mass, which is used to identify and quantify each component in the sample.
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Field Portable GC/MS with Spray-and-Trap Water Sampler for Groundwater, Direct Injection for Soil Gas, and Heated Headspace Analysis for Soil (1995)
This report is part of EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Report series. Field demonstrations were conducted in July and September 1995 at the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina and at Wurtsmith Air Force Base in Oscoda, Michigan. The primary target analytes in water, soil and soil gas included trichloroethene, tetrachloroethene, benzene, toluene, and xylene. The EM640 is a GC/MS system that provides laboratory-quality performance in a transportable package. The EM640 may be used to provide rapid screening data or laboratory quality confirmatory analysis in the field. The gas chromatograph separates the sample extract into individual components and the mass spectrometer ionizes each component, which provides the energy to fragment the molecules into characteristic ions. The ions are separated by mass, which is used to identify and quantify each component in the sample.
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PCB/Pesticides Characterization

Fluoroimmunoassay for Soil and Solvent Extract (2000)
This report is part of EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Report series. The verification test was conducted in August 2000 to measure PCBs in soil and solvent extracts from two sites at Oak Ridge National Laboratory located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The first site was located outdoors, with naturally fluctuating conditions and the second site was in a controlled environmental chamber under a monitored setting. The DELFIA PCB assay is a solid-phase time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay based on the sequential addition of sample extract and PCB tracer to a monoclonal antibody reagent specific for PCBs. The antibody reagent and sample extract are added to a strip of plate wells and allowed to react. The plates are washed to remove the sample matrix from the antibody. A PCB tracer is then added, which binds to the antibodies that are not attached to the sample PCBs. The excess tracer is washed off and a solution is added, which forms fluorescent chelates with the bound ions. The concentration of PCBs in the sample is measured by the amount of fluorescence.
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Immunoassay Rapid Sediment Characterization Tool (2000)
This report is part of the Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center's TechData Sheet series. In April 2000, a PCB sediment screening study was conducted at Hunters Point Shipyard to support a baseline risk assessment sample design. The screening was performed using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests, which use antibodies to bind with a target compound. Concentrations of the compound and the target analyte are identified through a colorimetric reaction. The determination of the compound's presence is made by comparing the color developed by a sample of concentration with the color formed by the standard containing the analyte at a known concentration. The concentration of the compound is determined by the intensity of color in the sample and is measured with a spectrophotometer.
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Ion-Specific Electrode Analyzer for Soil, Groundwater, Transformer Oils, and Surface Wipes (2000)
This report is part of EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Report series. The verification test was conducted in August 2000 to measure PCBs in transformer oil at Oak Ridge National Laboratory located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The L2000DX Analyzer is an ion-specific electrode that is designed to quantify PCBs, chlorinated solvents, and pesticides in soil, water, transformer oil, and surface wipe samples. The instrument uses a rechargeable battery and may be operated either in a lab or in the field. The sample is collected in a polyethylene reaction tube and metallic sodium is added in order to strip the covalently bound chlorine atoms from the PCB molecule. An extraction solution is added to help adjust the pH, destroy the excess sodium, and extract and isolate the newly formed chloride ions in an aqueous buffered solution. Once the aqueous solution is decanted, filtered, and collected, a chloride ion-specific electrode measures the millivolt potential of the chloride solution and the potential is converted to a PCB concentration in parts per million.
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Ion-Specific Electrode Analyzer for Drum Surfaces (1999)
This case study describes a field analytical method that was used to measure PCB surficial contamination in empty drums cleaned by a new process involving CO2 scouring. The Dexsil PCB analyzer was used to monitor residual PCB contamination in the processed drums. During the Dexsil process, chlorides were extracted from wipe samples and measured with an ion-specific electrode. The drum cleaning process was not effective; consequently, only limited information was obtained about use of the Dexsil method.
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Binding Enzyme Immunoassay Test Kit for Soil and Solvent Extract (1997)
This report is part of EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Report series. The demonstration was conducted in July 1997 to measure PCBs in soil from two sites at Oak Ridge National Laboratory located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The first site was located outdoors, with naturally fluctuating conditions and the second site was in a controlled environmental chamber under a monitored setting. The EnviroGard PCB Test Kit is a competitively binding enzyme immunoassay that performs testing for PCBs in soil and solutions at intervals between 1, 5, 10, and 50 ppm. PCBs are extracted from a sample using methanol. PCB enzyme conjugate and the sample are added to antibody-coated test tubes. After the test tubes are incubated and rinsed, a color developing solution is added. The amount of PCB in the sample is indicated by a color change.
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Electrochemical Analyzer for Soil and Solvent Extract (1997)
This report is part of EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Report series. The demonstration was conducted in July 1997, to measure PCBs in soil and solvent extracts (wipe samples) from two sites at Oak Ridge National Laboratory located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The first site was located outdoors, with naturally fluctuating conditions, and the second site was in a controlled environmental chamber under a monitored setting. The L2000 PCB/Chloride Analyzer is a field-portable instrument that is designed to quantify PCB concentrations in soil, dielectric fluids, and surface wipes. The sample is extracted using a nonchlorinated solvent and the supernatant is decanted onto a Florisil column where the water and inorganic chloride is removed. The solution is collected and metallic sodium is added in order to strip the covalently bound chlorine atoms from the PCB molecule. An extraction solution is added to help adjust the pH, destroy the excess sodium, and extract and isolate the newly formed chloride ions in an aqueous buffered solution. Once the aqueous solution is decanted, filtered, and collected, a chloride ion-specific electrode measures the millivolt potential of the chloride solution and the potential is converted to a PCB concentration in parts per million.
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Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Soil and Solvent Extract (1997)
This report is part of EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Report series. The demonstration was conducted in July 1997 to measure PCBs in soil and solvent extracts (wipe samples) from two sites at Oak Ridge National Laboratory located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The first site was located outdoors, with naturally fluctuating conditions and the second site was in a controlled environmental chamber under a monitored setting. The PCB Soil Tube Assay is designed for semi-quantitative field screening of PCBs in soil. The technology applies the principles of enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to the detection of PCBs. In this assay, an enzyme is been chemically linked to a PCB molecule or analog to create a PCB conjugate. The conjugate is mixed with an extract containing the sample. This mixture is applied to a surface to which an antibody for PCB has been affixed. The native PCB and PCB conjugate compete for a limited number of antibody sites. The solution is washed away and the remaining PCB-antibody complexes or enzyme-PCB-antibody complexes cause a color change reaction.
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Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay System for Soil and Solvent Extract (1997)
This report is part of EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Report series. The demonstration was conducted in July 1997 to measure PCBs in soil and solvent extracts (wipe samples) from two sites at Oak Ridge National Laboratory located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The first site was located outdoors, with naturally fluctuating conditions and the second site was in a controlled environmental chamber under a monitored setting. The RaPID Assay System applies the principles of enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to the detection of PCBs in soil. The system combines the sample, an enzyme conjugate, and paramagnetic particles coated with PCB-specific antibodies in a test tube. After incubation, a magnetic field is applied, which allows unbound reagents to be decanted. Following decanting, the particles are washed and an enzyme substrate and chromatogen are added. The mixture is incubated and acid is added. The amount of PCB in the sample is indicated by a color change.
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Immunoassay Test Kit with Latex Particles for Soil and Solvent Extract (1997)
This report is part of EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Report series. The demonstration was conducted in July 1997 to measure PCBs in soil and solvent extracts from two sites at Oak Ridge National Laboratory located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The first site was located outdoors, with naturally fluctuating conditions and the second site was in a controlled environmental chamber under a monitored setting. The D TECH PCB Test Kit is a semi-quantitative technology based on the principles of immunoassay to detect trace amounts of PCBs in samples. Antibodies are immobilized on latex particles that react with the sample solution. The analyte PCBs and enzyme conjugate bind to the antibodies. The latex particles are washed and a color developing solution is added. The amount of PCB in the sample is indicated by a color change.
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Semi-Quantitative, Analyte-Specific Immunoassay Kit for Soil (1997)
This report is part of EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Report series. The demonstration was conducted in July 1997 to measure PCBs in soil from two sites at Oak Ridge National Laboratory located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The first site was located outdoors, with naturally fluctuating conditions and the second site was in a controlled environmental chamber under a monitored setting. The PCB Immunoassay Kit is a semi-quantitative screening method that indicates whether the PCB concentration in soil is above or below a specific threshold value. The technology uses analyte-specific antibodies attached to the inside of plastic tubes to bind and remove PCBs selectively from samples. In this immunoassay, the sample and a reagent containing enzyme conjugates are added to antibody-coated tubes. Enzyme conjugates and PCBs bind to the antibodies attached to the tube. The samples are incubated, the solution is washed away, and color development reagents are added. The amount of PCB in the sample is indicated by a color change.
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Surface Acoustic Wave Detector for Soil and Solvent Extract (1997)
This report is part of EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Report series. The demonstration was conducted in July 1997 to measure PCBs in soil and solvent extracts (wipe samples) from two sites at Oak Ridge National Laboratory located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The first site was located outdoors, with naturally fluctuating conditions and the second site was in a controlled environmental chamber under a monitored setting. The 4100 Vapor Detector is a handheld, portable chromatograph system equipped with a nonspecific Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) detector, which is used to quantify PCBs in soil and solvent extract samples. The SAW detector is a mass detector, which can quantify chromatographic peaks, with peak widths measured in milliseconds. The sample is injected into a GC capillary column, where speciation is based upon retention time measurements using a temperature-programmed column. Quantification is based on upon the frequency shift produced by the PCB congeners as they exit the GC column.
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Radionuclide Characterization

Real-Time Measurement of Radionuclides in Soil: Technology and Case Studies (2006)
This Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council (ITRC) report presents an overview of real-time radionuclide characterization technologies and data collection techniques. This document presents descriptions of the various technologies that have been combined to create real-time radiological data collection systems as well as a description of the frameworks within which each technology operates (data collection approaches, decision-making, quality control, and regulatory considerations). The document also presents five, real world case studies where the technologies have been implemented.
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In Situ Radiation Detection Demonstration (2000)
A large area plastic scintillation (LAPS) detector was used in conjunction with a global positioning system (GPS) to collect and log information about concentrations of radionuclides in soil at the Kirtland Air Force Base/Sandia National Laboratory in New Mexico. The three sites used in this demonstration were ER Site 55, OT-8, and OT-91. Each site was contaminated with a single radionuclide, either depleted uranium (DU) or thorium (Th)-232. Study findings showed that the predicted soil concentrations were accurate to within a factor of two of the known values.
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Membrane Rapid Sampling Technology for Groundwater (2000)
The EmporeTM membrane technology is a commercial separation technology developed and patented by 3M. It consists of a method for enmeshing sorbent, surface-active particles in a web-like matrix, which is formed into a membrane. The particles are a product of molecular recognition technology, and allow selective adsorption of heavy metals or radionuclides that are present as ions in aqueous solutions. The technology has been used for sampling and analysis of water samples and for treatment of radioactively-contaminated water. This report describes the use of EmporeTM technology at four sites, including use at the Savannah River site for sampling and analysis of groundwater for technetium, strontium, cesium, and lead contamination.
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On-Line, Real-Time Alpha Radiation Measuring Instrument (2000)
This report describes the Thermo Alpha Monitor (TAM) technology, developed by Thermo Power Corporation. The TAM technology counts alpha emitters, such as uranium 238 and 234 and plutonium 239, in water. The TAM technology was demonstrated at several locations at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, using a range of water chemistries, contaminant concentrations, and radioisotopes. Tests were conducted using surface water, groundwater, and process water, and measured uranium concentrations from <10 to 100 µg/L.
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Spectral Gamma Probe for Soil and Groundwater (2000)
The Spectral Gamma Probe consists of a gamma radiation detection probe that is driven into the subsurface using a cone penetrometer. A sodium iodide scintillation crystal detects gamma radiation at the probe tip. Gamma rays emitted by radioactive wastes are collected and the spectrum is analyzed to identify radioactive constituents and their relative concentrations. The Spectral Gamma Probe was evaluated at the R-Reactor Seepage Basins at the Savannah River site for its ability to measure cesium-137 in the presence of other subsurface radioactive contaminants.
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Thallium Activated Sodium Iodide Detector for Paint and Soil (2000)
This report is part of DOE's Innovative Technology Summary Report series. This report presents the results and lessons learned from field demonstrations conducted in March and April 2000, which investigated the feasibility of using the SAMs technology to make in situ isotopic radiation measurements in paint chips and soil samples at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Large Scale Demonstration and Deployment Project, located in Idaho Falls, Idaho. The SAM Model 935 is a handheld detector that uses a thallium activated sodium iodide detector to provide isotopic analysis in the field.
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Global Positioning Radiometric Scanner System for Surface Soils (1999)
This report is part of DOE's Innovative Technology Summary Report series. In September 1999, the GPRS system was demonstrated in the field at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Initial Engine Test Facility on the IET stack trench. The GPRS system uses a detection system, a portable computer, a differential global positioning system, and a four-wheel drive vehicle. Once the survey data has been collected, a software program called GeoSoftÔ generates a geographical representation of the radiological contamination extent. The GPRS consists of a portable sodium-iodide detector to perform real time, in situ analyses to conduct routine large area surface radiation surveys. In September 1999, the GPRS system was demonstrated in the field at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Initial Engine Test Facility on the IET stack trench.
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Long-Term, Post-Closure Radiation Monitor for Soil and Groundwater (1999)
DOE conducted a one-year field trial from 1998 to 1999, at the Fernald Environmental Management Project, located in Fernald, Ohio to demonstrate the Long-term, Post-closure Radiation Monitoring System (LPRMS). The LPRMS is based on gamma detection and monitors radionuclides to depths of 50 meters below ground surface. A nanoprobe, consisting of a coupled thallium-doped, sodium iodide scintillator/photomultiplier tube and a multichannel analyzer. The nanoprobe is lowered into a PVC casing in the ground. Measurements are taken at the surface using a solar-powered station and a cell phone modem for communication to an offsite computer.
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Lumi-Scint Liquid Scintillation Counter (1999)
This report is part of DOE's Innovative Technology Summary Report series and presents information from demonstrations conducted in three phases in 1999 at the Miamisburg Environmental Project site. The cost and performance of the portable Lumi-Scint liquid scintillation radiation counter (LSC) and the standard laboratory-based LSC (baseline technology) are presented. The demonstration also determined if the portable LSC could be used as a supplement to the standard LSC and provide a rapid quantitative tool for analyzing swipes of low-energy beta-emitting radionuclides. The demonstration showed the portable unit cannot replace the baseline technology, however, it is useful for providing fast analysis in the field on a small number of samples.
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Multisensor Dig Face Characterization for Radioactive Waste (1999)
The Dig Face Characterization system (now known as Remedial Action Management System, or RAMS) consists of multiple real-time sensors (geophysical, chemical, radiological, and physical) situated at the dig face. These sensors provide characterization information during excavation. A demonstration of RAMS was performed at the Mound Environmental Management Project in Miamisburg, Ohio. During this demonstration, a track-mounted, trolley platform, dig face system was used to monitor a 20-foot by 5-foot excavation of a radiologically-contaminated site known as Area 7.
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Pipeline Slurry Monitors for Sludge (1999)
Slurry monitoring instruments measure slurry properties during pipeline transfers to stay within control limits and to prevent blockage. Two in-line slurry monitors were demonstrated to provide real-time data on slurry materials in pipelines, such as density, particle population, and particle dimensions. The two monitors were the Endress-Hauser Promass 63M Coriolis Meter and the Lasentec M600P Analyzer. The two monitors were demonstrated using an Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) slurry monitoring test loop (SMTL) installed at the Gunite and Associated Tank (GATT) slurry transport system.
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Spectrometer Monitor for Transuranics in Glass (1999)
This report is part of DOE's Innovative Technology Summary Report series. This report presents the results from three demonstrations conducted during August 1997, July 1998, and October 1999, at the Savannah River Site, located in Aiken, South Carolina. The Real-Time Monitor for Transuranics in Glass is a monitor that can be used to determine the concentration of certain metals in a glass stream as it flows out of a melter. The monitor is based on the detection of the spectrum of light emitted by a high-temperature object. Light emitted by the hot glass stream is focused into an optical fiber, which is coupled into a spectrometer with an array detector. Target analytes included ytterbium, a plutonium surrogate; erbium, a surrogate for americium and curium; and neodymium, an americium surrogate.
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Photodetector Fiber-Optic Sensor for Soil (1998)
The BetaScintTM sensor uses photodetectors to determine beta particle radioactivity in a soil sample, and provides a measure of strontium (Sr)-90 and uranium (U)-238 contamination. Beta particles (electrons) emitted by radioactive contaminants excite electrons in plastic fiber doped with fluorescent compounds in the layers of the sensor. The plastic fibers give off light when the fluorescent molecules lose energy and return to their ground state. The sensor was used at the DOE Oakland Operations Office Laboratory for Energy-related Health Research (LEHR) in Davis, California, in screening and confirmation studies for Sr-90. The sensor also was used to expedite site remediation.
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Position-Sensitive Radiation Monitor for Flat Open Areas or Smooth Surfaces (1997)
This report is part of DOE's Innovative Technology Summary Report series. The report includes the results of a demonstration of the technology at the DOE Hanford facility in 1997. The Position-Sensitive Radiation Monitor can be used to document radiological surveys of large, open, flat areas and smooth surfaces, both before and after decontamination of facilities. The system detects alpha and bete/gamma contamination, uses an automatic data logger, and can be configured with large detectors on mobile platforms for surveying outdoors or large wall, ceiling, and floor surfaces.
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Unexploded Ordnance Characterization

Applikon MARGA Semi-Continuous Ambient Air Monitoring System (2011)   Newly Posted!
This environmental technology verification report was prepared by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Environmental Technology Verification Program. It describes a demonstration study to evaluate performance data generated from the use of a semi-continuous ambient air monitoring technology (the Applikon MARGA Semi-Continuous Ambient Air Monitoring System). Testing was conducted in an environmentally controlled instrument trailer located on an EPA ambient air quality monitoring site in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina over a period of thirty days. Two identical MARGA units were installed inside the trailer. Hourly measurements were recorded by the units. The primary objective was to verify the performance characteristics of the MARGA unit (ADI 2080) as an on-line analyzer for semi-continuous measurement of gases and soluble ions in aerosols. Analytes evaluated during the verification test included sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitric acid (HNO3), and ammonia (NH3) in the gas phase, and sulfate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-), and ammonium (NH4+) in the particle phase. Data completeness was also evaluated for chlorine (Cl-), calcium (Ca2+), and sodium (Na+) in the particle phase. The report includes information regarding the each unit’s accuracy compared to reference measurements, the precision of each unit compared to the other, the completeness of the data recorded, instrument reliability, ease of use, maintenance, power consumption, and costs.
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MetalMapper: A Multi-Sensor TEM System for UXO Detection and Classification (2011)   Newly Posted!
This cost and performance report was prepared by the Department of Defense (DoD) Environmental Security Technology Certification Program. It describes a demonstration study conducted to evaluate the use of an advanced transient electromagnetic system (TEM), MetalMapper, to detect and characterize unexploded ordnances (UXOs) underground. Field demonstrations were conducted at three demonstration sites: (1) Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) Aberdeen, Maryland; (2) former Camp San Luis Obispo (SLO) San Luis Obispo, California; and (3) former Camp Butner located in Butner, North Carolina. The primary objective of the demonstrations was to demonstrate the capability of the MetalMapper in mapping mode and static mode and to compare the MetalMapper to other commercially available platforms. At each field demonstration, the MetalMapper was deployed to detect and classify UXOs. In comparison with other commercially available TEM systems, the MetalMapper exhibited a more advanced detection method that was better able to identify targets as munitions or non-munitions and minimize anomalies. The report includes information regarding demonstration conditions, performance assessment results, cost assessment results, and issues encountered during the deployment of the MetalMapper.
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Validation of Sampling Protocol and the Promulgation of Method Modifications for the Characterization of Energetic Residues on Military Training Ranges (2009)
This report, a cost and performance report prepared by the Environmental Security Technology Certification Program of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), describes two field demonstrations that promote scientifically defensible sampling and sample-processing protocols for the characterization of energetic residues on military training ranges. Several processes have been developed for site and remedial investigations of formerly used and active military training and testing ranges, two of which are Method 8330B and MULTI INCREMENT® sampling (MIS). Method 8330B is a method that is used to representatively sample an area where particles have been dispersed. MIS is a sampling technique to obtain a representative amount of every particle size, composition, and configuration, while avoiding oversampling or missing any portion of the area being sampled. Two field demonstrations (Fort Richardson in Anchorage, Alaska and Canadian Forces Base Petawawa in Ontario, Canada) compared Method 8330B and MIS sampling techniques to other sampling techniques for site characterization. Demonstration design, performance assessment, cost assessment, and implementation issues are included in this report.
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Survey of Munitions Response Technologies (2006)
This report provides an overview of the current status of technologies used for munitions response actions and, where possible, evaluates and quantifies their performance capabilities. Detailed observations and critical considerations in the application of munitions response technologies with particular emphasis on detection technologies are discussed in the report. Hypothetical scenarios are provided that illustrate how to evaluate and select the appropriate characterization technologies based on the site conditions, munitions of concern, and specific project objectives.
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Electromagnetic Induction and Magnetic Sensor Fusion (2001)
The Naval Research Laboratory has been developing the Multi-sensor Towed Array Detection System (MTADS) to identify unexploded ordnance. MTADS has been demonstrated at a number of sites; this Environmental Security Technology Certificate Program (ESTCP) report describes the demonstration at the Army Research Laboratory's Blossom Point facility in Maryland. The system consists of a low-magnetic-signature vehicle to tow linear arrays of magnetometer and pulsed-induced sensors to survey large areas. The demonstration included data collection, data analysis, and target marking and remediation. MTADS can detect and locate ordnance with accuracies on the order of 15cm. However, MTADS has selected a significant number of non-ordnance targets and more effective discrimination algorithms are required.
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Multi-Sensor Towed Array Detection System (1999)
The MTADS system hardware consists of a low magnetic signature vehicle that is used to tow linear arrays of magnetic and electromagnetic (EM) sensors to conduct surveys of large areas and to detect buried unexploded ordnance (UXO). The MTADS magnetic sensors are cesium vapor, full-field magnetometers, which can be used in several configurations. Four demonstrations of the MTADS system were conducted, including demonstrations at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL)/Chesapeake Bay Detachment (CBD) Magnetic Test Range, and at the Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center (MCAGCC) in Twentynine Palms, CA.
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Remote Minefield Detection System (1999)
This report describes the REMIDS developed to detect unexploded ordnance (UXO), and reviews the performance of REMIDS in tests at the Yuma Proving Ground in Arizona and at Ft. Rucker in Alabama. REMIDS enhances the discrimination of surface UXO by using reflectance, polarization, temperature, and footprint (shape) to distinguish UXO from natural objects in the UXO's surroundings. The REMIDS hardware consists of an airborne line scanner with sensors that measure reflectance, polarization, and thermal response in 710 round "spots". The performance of this system was tested at a 2,400 m2 site at Ft. Rucker and a 0.5 km2 site at Yuma. System performance was found to be site-dependent.
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Geophysical Techniques

In Situ/Bore Hole

Field Demonstration and Validation of a New Device for Measuring Water and Solute Fluxes (2007)
This cost and performance report prepared by Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) provides a summary of the demonstration and validation of the passive flux meter (PFM), a new monitoring technology which measures in situ subsurface water and contaminant fluxes. The PFM technology was implemented at several locations including the National Air and Space Administration's (NASA) Launch Complex 34 (LC-34) in Cape Canaveral, Florida; the Canadian Forces Base in Ontario, Canada (Borden); the Naval Construction Base in Port Hueneme, California; and the Naval Surface Warfare Center at Indian Head, Maryland. The report provides a description of the technology, demonstration design, performance assessment, cost assessment and issues associated with the implementation at the four sites mentioned before.
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HydroTechnics In Situ Flow Sensor (2001)
This report is part of a series of Technology Evaluation Reports produced by EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory. The HydroTechnics flow sensors were used in measuring the three-dimensional flow pattern created by operation of the Wasatch Environmental, Inc. groundwater circulation well (GCW). The test was conducted at Cape Canaveral Air Station from July 2000 to September 2001. The flow sensors are in situ instruments that use a thermal perturbation technique to directly measure the velocity of groundwater flow in unconsolidated, saturated, porous media. The evaluation was used to measure changes in groundwater velocities during operation of the GCW, and to help define and evaluate three-dimensional flow patterns. At Cape Canaveral, the sensors were located within a 15 ft horizontal groundwater circulation cell, and were found to be responsive to changes in groundwater flow conditions within the cell.
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Sensors Case study: Use of In-Situ Sensors to Monitor Groundwater Velocity at the China Lake Naval Air Weapons System Site (1999)
This case study describes the use of Variably Emitting Controlled Thermal Output Recorder (VECTOR) technology at the China Lake Naval Weapons Station, to measure groundwater flow speed and direction in three dimensions. The VECTOR technology calculates groundwater flow by measuring displacements in the heat-flow field around probes in saturated subsurface zones. These probes are installed in situ using methods like hollow stem auger drilling. Following installation, the probes are connected to a 120-volt power supply. They are then turned on and calibrated before flow data collection is initiated. To function properly, the probes require a minimum of five-feet of saturated soil above them. The probes at the site were installed in 1999, and data from them were used to monitor local groundwater flow and seasonal and background impacts to local flow fields located several thousands of feet away from the probes. This case study is a part of the EPA's "Sensor Technology Used During Site Remediation Activities — Selected Experiences" report and can be found in Appendix 4 of that report.
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Electromagnetic Borehole Flowmeter for Groundwater (1998)
This report presents the results from case studies conducted by the EPA's Office of Research and Development at several location, including: Columbus AFB, Mississippi; Oak Ridge National Laboratories, Tennessee; The Oklahoma Refining Company Superfund Site, Oklahoma; Gilson Road Superfund Site, New Hampshire; Mirror Lake, New Hampshire; Logan Martin Dam, Alabama; and Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The electromagnetic borehole flowmeter evaluates the vertical variation of hydraulic conductivity. It consists of an electromagnet and two electrodes that are cast in epoxy, which are molded into a cylindrical shape in order to minimize turbulence. The flowing water acts as a conductor and the electromagnet generates a magnetic field which the electrodes measure. The induced voltage is directly proportional to the velocity of the water.
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In Situ Permeable Flow Sensor for Groundwater (1998)
This report is part of DOE's Innovative Technology Summary Report series. This report provides cost and performance data for the In Situ Permeable Flow Sensor (ISPFS) based on demonstrations conducted at DOE's Savannah River and Hanford Sites, Edwards Air Force Base, and other sites. One of the demonstrations was conducted at the Weeks Island Strategic Petroleum Reserve Site, where ISPFSs were used to monitor groundwater flow into a sinkhole that had formed at a former salt mine where DOE had stored large quantities of crude oil in barrels. The ISPFS showed the site was unsuitable for the storage of the crude oil. The oil was removed and the site abandoned. The ISPFS measures the direction and velocity of groundwater flow in saturated, unconsolidated sediments. The ISPFS is permanently installed in the ground and uses temperature sensors to measure the flow of groundwater as it moves past the sensors. The ISPFS is commercially available.
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Multispecies Reactive Tracer Test for Groundwater (1993)
In April 1993 EPA's Office of Research and Development conducted a field demonstration of a tracer test under variable chemical conditions. The demonstration was conducted in a shallow, unconfined, sand and gravel aquifer on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Approximately 10,000-liters of groundwater with additional tracers were injected into the aquifer. The distribution of tracers was monitored for over a year as the tracers were transported over 200 meters through an array of multilevel samplers. The added tracers were made up of a nonreactive bromide ion, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and metal complexes of EDTA.
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Field Demonstration and Validation of a New Device for Measuring Water and Solute Fluxes at CFB Borden
This report prepared by Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) presents the results of a project that demonstrates and validates a new monitoring technology known as the passive flux meter (PFM). The PFM intercepts groundwater flow via a well or boring and is left in place for a fixed period of time that may range from days to months. Dissolved organic and inorganic contaminants in the groundwater are retained within the meter and tracers are released at rates proportional to the fluid flux. Time-averaged contaminant mass fluxes and cumulative fluid flux are calculated from the contaminant and tracer masses. The report presents results of PFM demonstration/validation from a series of controlled field experiments conducted at the Canadian Forces Base Borden Demonstration Site in Ontario, Canada. The report provides background information of PFM, description of how the PFM works, background information on the test site, PFM performance, implementation costs, and issues associated with its implementation.
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Surface (EM, Radiation, GPR)

21M²: Evaluation of a Former Landfill Site in Fort Collins, Colorado Using Ground-Based Optical Remote Sensing Technology (2005)
This report presents the results of a study conducted by the EPA Region 8 Office, and the Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation on the performance of a site assessment carried out at a former landfill site at Fort Collins, Colorado for fugitive gas emissions. The study was conducted as part of an effort under the city of Fort Collin's Brownfields program to support reuse options for the landfill property. The focus of the study was to evaluate fugitive emissions of methane and volatile organic compounds from the landfill site using a scanning open-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, open-path tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy, and an ultra-violet differential optical absorption spectrometer. The study involved a technique developed through research funded by the EPA National Risk Management Research Laboratory that uses ground-based optical remote sensing technology, known as optical remote sensing-radial plume mapping.
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Sensors Case study: 2D-Recon and EOL Geophysical Survey Techniques for Characterizing Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils at the Hotel Pier Site (2005)
This case study describes the use of two dimensional gradiometer (2D-Recon) and 3D electromagnetic offset log (EOL) geophysical survey techniques for characterizing hydrocarbon-contaminated soil at the Hotel Pier site on Pearl Harbor Naval Base in Hawaii. This geophysical resistivity survey was used to characterize hydrocarbon contamination in the surface and subsurface as well as help evaluate remedial alternatives for the site. The 2D-Recon was used to conduct an initial measurement of relative resistivity and determine the probable plume boundaries across 7-acres of the site. The EOL survey was also conducted to define and map subsurface resistivity using a 10-foot grid spacing over 1.4 acres of the site. The surveys were conducted in January 1999 and provided information on the surface and subsurface extent of hydrocarbon contamination in an expedient manner. This case study is a part of the EPA's "Sensor Technology Used During Site Remediation Activities — Selected Experiences" report and can be found in Appendix 2 of that report.
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Cone Penetrometer Deployed Electrical Resistance Tomography and Ground Penetrating Radar for Soil (2000)
Tomographic Site Characterization uses a cone penetrometer (CPT) to deploy Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT) and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR). This report discusses the use of Tomographic Site Characterization at three sites - Applied Research Associates' (ARA) test site in Vermont, and two areas at the Savannah River Site (SRS). At ARA, a prototype of the system was tested. At SRS, the system was used to delineate the zone of influence of a permeable reactive barrier well.
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Electromagnetic 3-D Resistivity Surveys for DNAPL (2000)
This Environmental Security Technology Certificate Program (ESTCP) report describes investigations to use quasi-static electromagnetic (EM) resistivity surveys to detect dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) at two DoD installations with well-documented DNAPL problems- Alameda Point and Tinker Air Force Base. The EM resistivity survey is a geophysical technique using a surface source and a receiver in a bore hole that generates a 3-D image of DNAPL-contaminated zones based on the different resistive properties of DNAPL contamination and non-contaminated subsurface soil, rock, and groundwater. The 3-D resistivity method is interpretive and requires validation sampling and chemical analysis to verify contamination is present. The validation sampling for the investigations indicated the EM survey technique did not adequately predict where significant DNAPL is located.
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Geophysical Investigations at Multiple Hazardous Waste Sites (2000)
This report, compiled by EPA's Technology Innovation Program, contains 11 case studies about the use of geophysical techniques for site characterization at hazardous waste sites. Techniques include use of ground penetrating radar, magnetometry, electromagnetometry, electrical resistivity, electrical conductivity, vertical seismic profiling, natural gamma logging, seismic reflection surveys, and electromagnetic induction logging. Site types consist of those used for creosoting, MGP, refinery, and plating, as well as those containing underground storage tanks and landfills. The report also provides an overview of the case studies and a summary of the geophysical techniques used along with their performance and lessons learned. Note that each case study also is provided separately on this web site.
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Download Part 2 (2.2MB/28pp/PDF)

3-D Gamma Ray Imaging for Soil (1999)
This DOE report presents the results, costs, and lessons learned from a demonstration project conducted in August 1999 during which the technology was used to survey the DOE Hanford site, 221-U facility as part of the Canyon Disposition Initiative (CDI). The 3-D GammaModelar™ imaging system was developed to remotely survey large areas for gamma ray emissions and display the results in 3-D. The initiative will assist DOE in evaluating the feasibility of using massive fuel reprocessing facilities (canyons) as waste repositories. The system performed well during the demonstration and obtained emission and positioning data on 21 objects of interest to the CDI study, including equipment and tanks.
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3-D Seismic Imaging Survey for DNAPL (1999)
This report is part of the Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center's TechData Sheet series and presents information from field demonstrations of high-resolution seismic imaging surveys at four DOD sites: Letterkenny Army Depot, NAS Alameda, Tinker AFB, and Allegany Ballistics Laboratory. These demonstrations were used to obtain information relating to subsurface geology and hydrostratigraphy, as well as leading to the discovery of free phase DNAPL at one site. Seismic imaging is a noninvasive method, which involves transmitting acoustic impulses from the ground surface to the subsurface, causing the impulses to reflect off interfaces between the physical layers and reflect back to the ground surface. The arrival times and intensities of the reflections are recorded by sensors.
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Ground Penetrating Radar and Electromagnetics for Soil and Groundwater (1999)
The Baker Wood Creosoting site was contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The geology at the site consists of silty loam over clay. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electromagnetometry (EM) were used to delineate source areas and soil contamination, with 100 traverses performed over 0.7 acres. GPR identified buried structures that later investigation found to be contaminated, while EM delineated near-surface soil contamination. Investigators determined that the penetration depth of GPR was limited by shallow, dense clay soils, and that the penetration depth of EM was limited by nearby structures.
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High Resolution Seismic Reflection for DNAPL (1999)
This report provides cost and performance data for a seismic reflection survey technique used to generate a high-resolution, three-dimensional (3-D) image of subsurface geologic, hydrogeologic, and DNAPL contaminant source areas at four DoD sites: Letterkenny Army Depot, PA; Alameda Naval Air Station, CA; Tinker Air Force Base, OK; and Allegany Ballistics Laboratory, WV. The demonstration results showed that the 3-D seismic surveys were not effective at directly detecting DNAPL; only one location out of 27 evaluated was found to contain DNAPL. These results did not meet the project objective of verifying that 90% of the predictions for DNAPL were correct. However, the technology appeared to be a useful tool for imaging subsurface conditions for site characterization and for determining the most likely locations for DNAPL source zone migration and accumulation, particularly in fractured bedrock settings.
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Hydrogeologic Data Fusion Software for Groundwater (1999)
Hydrogeologic data fusion is a mathematical modeling tool that can be used to combine various types of geophysical, geologic, and hydrologic data from different types of sensors to estimate geologic and hydrogeologic properties. It also is used to combine several mathematical techniques to calibrate models of groundwater flow. The Hydrogeologic Data Fusion product developed under DOE funding is called DFW/VAM3DF and has been demonstrated at several DOE and DoD sites. For example, at Hanford/200 West Area, the product was used to combine geophysical measurements and core data to map the location of a critical geological layer that controls groundwater flow.
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Electrical Resistance Tomography for Soil (1998)
This report discusses the use of Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT) at nine sites from 1991 to 1998, including early tests at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the Savannah River site, and a more recent application at Dover Air Force Base (AFB). At LLNL, ERT was used to map subsurface regions treated using steam injection in a demonstration of the Dynamic Underground Stripping process. At Savannah River, ERT was used to show changes in resistivity related to the heating and vaporization of pore water and other materials in a demonstration of a radio-frequency heating process. At Dover AFB, ERT was used to monitor the installation of grout and polymer barriers.
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Geophysical Techniques to Locate DNAPLs — Federally-Funded Projects (1998)
This report, prepared by the FRTR, contains technology profiles on federally-funded projects that use noninvasive geophysical techniques to locate DNAPLs in the subsurface. Eleven projects are described, consisting of two from DOE, one from USGS, five from the Air Force, two from ESTCP, and one from EPA. Techniques used include electrical impedance tomography, seismic reflectance, cross-well radar, sensors, resistivity, inversion imaging, electromagnetic resistivity, seismic resistivity, and partitioning tracers. Each profile consists of a technology description, as well as information about status, cost, contacts, and references.
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Vertical Seismic Profile of Soil and Groundwater (1998)
The Kelly Air Force Base site was contaminated with chlorinated solvents. The geology at the site consists of a mix of sand, gravel, and clay over limestone. Seismic reflection was used to map the bedrock topography; 317 station measurements were performed for a cost of $15,900. The seismic reflection technology identified channels in bedrock where later sampling found pooled DNAPL. Investigators reported that railroad noise interfered with data collection.
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Ground Penetrating Radar and Electrical Resistivity for Groundwater (1997)
The Crystal Refinery site was contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. The geology at the site consists of sandy loam, sand, and clay over limestone. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electrical resistivity were used to monitor groundwater contamination, with two traverses performed over 2.3 acres for a cost of $5,800. These approaches identified LNAPL located at the water table.
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Magnetometry, Electromagnetics, Natural Gamma Logging, and Soil Gas Analysis Technologies for Soil (1997)
The New Mexico State Highway and Transportation Department (NMSHTD) Underground Storage Tank (UST) site was contaminated with chlorinated solvents. The geology at the site consists of sandy clay with clay layers over shale. Magnetometry, electromagnetometry, and natural gamma were used to characterize site stratigraphy for each sampling point location. Thirty-three profiles were performed over 15 acres, for a cost of less than $70,000. The gamma logs identified clay layers that influenced vapor migration in the vadose zone, and logs were used to position soil gas samplers.
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Ground Penetrating Radar, Electromagnetics, and Magnetometry for Soil and Groundwater (1996)
The Wurtsmith Air Force Base (AFB) site was contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. The geology at the site consists of sand and gravel over clay and sandstone. Ground penetrating radar (GPR), electromagnetometry, and magnetometry were used to monitor groundwater contamination. 2,700 feet of profiles were performed for a cost of $7,700. These technologies identified an unknown LNAPL plume at the site.
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Electrical Conductivity of Soil and Groundwater at a Gas Manufacturing and Electrical Generation Site (1994)
The Marshalltown Former Manufactured Gas Plant (FMGP) site was contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The geology at the site consists of glacial till over limestone. Electrical conductivity was used to characterize site stratigraphy; 27 conductivity logs were performed in 5 days for $7,900. This technology identified lithology, including layers not previously identified, and the conductivity probe was able to directly detect DNAPLs. Investigators reported that the probes broke when they encountered cobbles and boulders. Investigators also reported that weathered bedrock was not distinguishable in the logs.
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Ground Penetrating Radar for Soil and Groundwater (1991)
The Ciba-Geigy site was contaminated with chlorinated solvents and petroleum hydrocarbons. The geology at the site consists of sandy fill over clay. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) was used to characterize the stratigraphy of the site, with 85 traverses performed over 0.1 acres in two days for a cost of $4,000. GPR identified a topographic low; later sampling confirmed DNAPL at the location. Investigators found that dense clay limited the depth of penetration of the GPR.
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Electrical Conductivity of Soil and Groundwater at an UST Site
The Kansas Underground Storage Tank (UST) site was contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. The geology at the site consists of clay over sand. Electrical conductivity was used to characterize site stratigraphy; 10 logs were performed over 3.7 acres for a cost of $3,600. The electrical conductivity probe detected a saddle-like formation in a confining layer that acted as a preferential migration pathway for LNAPL.
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Electromagnetic/Seismic Reflection/Seismic Modeling Technologies for Soil and Groundwater at an Air Force Base
The Tinker Air Force Base (AFB) site was contaminated with chromium and chlorinated solvents. The geology at the site consists of mixed clay and sand layers over sandstone. Seismic reflection and electromagnetometry were used to characterize site stratigraphy for new well installation. 17,510 feet of profiles were performed over 100 acres; these technologies were used to identify permeable layers. Investigators reported that muddy surface conditions interfered with data collection.
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Natural Gamma Logging, Magnetometry, and Electrical Conductivity Technologies for Soil and Groundwater
The Trail Road Landfill site was contaminated with dissolved inorganic and organic compounds. The geology at the site consists of sand and gravel over clay and limestone. Natural gamma, magnetometry, electrical conductivity, and temperature were used to monitor groundwater contamination, with 5 measurements performed in 8 logs, for a cost of $4,200. These technologies were used to develop continuous lithologic logs. Conductivity and temperature logs also identified zones of groundwater contamination.
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Seismic Reflection Survey, Ground Penetrating Radar, Natural Gamma logging, and Electromagnetic Borehole Logging for Soil and Groundwater
The New Hampshire Plating Company site was contaminated with chromium. The geology at the site consists of silty clay over granite. Seismic reflection, ground penetrating radar (GPR), natural gamma, and electromagnetometry were used to characterize site stratigraphy and monitor groundwater contamination. 33 station measurements, 7 logs, and 5,800 ft of profiles were performed over 13.1 acres, for a cost of $43,100. These technologies delineated stratigraphy and identified zones of groundwater contamination. Investigators reported that dense clay and sediments limited the depth of penetration for GPR and seismic signals.
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Miscellaneous/Leak Detection

Monitoring of Water and Contaminant Migration at the Groundwater-Surface Water Interface (2008)
This cost and performance report compares and evaluates the effectiveness of two water sampling technologies, Trident probe and Ultraseep system, as alternatives to numerical models for characterizing coastal contaminant migration. Both of these characterization technologies were assessed for their ability to take direct measurements at the point where groundwater enters surface water. These direct measurements allow decisions to be made based on site specific data, rather than on modeling results or measurements at a conservative point of compliance. This report provides detailed information on the demonstration of the technologies at two different sites. The first demonstration focused on evaluation of a volatile organic compound (VOC) plume associated with Area of Concern (AOC) 1 at Naval Support Activity (NSA) in Panama City, Florida. The second demonstration was performed at the former Naval Training Center (NTC) in Orlando, Florida where the contaminant of concern was tetrachloroethene (PCE). Each demonstration consisted of sampling and monitoring with each device followed by a VOC and water quality analysis. This report details the design, operation, and performance of the technologies at each of the two sites. The results of the demonstrations were used to quantify and compare the operation costs and performance of the two technologies for characterizing contaminant migration at the groundwater-surface water interface.
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Prediction of Groundwater Quality Down-Gradient of In Situ Permeable Treatment Barriers and Fully Remediated Source Zones (2008)
This report, prepared by the Environmental Security Technology Certification Program of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), provides information on the development and demonstration of an approach to estimate groundwater quality improvements downgradient of a biobarrier permeable treatment barrier (PTB) system at the Naval Base Ventura County (NBVC) to treat methyl tert-butyl ether (MtBE). The purpose of this demonstration was to evaluate a simplistic approach to provide estimates of water quality improvements with time downgradient of the PTB. The proposed approach involves collection of pre-PTB groundwater concentration data in order to develop a conceptual model of the initial groundwater concentration distribution; collection of hydrogeological data to form a layered conceptual model of the groundwater flow and direction; and entry of data in an Excel spreadsheet-based tool (DGCHANGE v1.0) to estimate changes in groundwater quality with time and space. The results of the demonstration indicated that this approach is practicable and estimates groundwater quality changes that are reasonably consistent with the observed site behavior.
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Sensors Case study: Programmable Logic Controllers and Ozone Analyzers at the Moffett Federal Airfield Site (2005)
This case study describes the use of real-time ozone analyzers in conjunction with a programmable logic controller (PLC) in a pump and treat system at the Moffett Federal Airfield Site. Extracted groundwater was first treated with ozone and hydrogen peroxide to remove up to 99 percent of the influent contaminants. Air stripping and granular activated carbon units removed the rest of the contaminants before the groundwater was discharged to the site's storm sewer. Offgas from the system was heated and treated before being discharged. The ozone analyzers, in conjunction with the PLC, ensured that the correct dosage of ozone was applied to the influent water, the offgas treatment system was meeting the air emission standards, and that the ambient air was meeting the Occupational Safety and Health Administration standards. This case study is a part of the EPA's "Sensor Technology Used During Site Remediation Activities — Selected Experiences" report and can be found in Appendix 5 of that report.
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Sensors Case study: Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Using Programmable Logic Controllers at the Sprague Road Superfund Site (2005)
This case study describes the use of programmable logic controllers (PLC) technology at the Sprague Road Ground Water Plume Superfund site to operate the remediation system. The remediation system consists of groundwater extraction, treatment using ion-exchange, and re-injection. The remedial system was designed for continuous operation with little human intervention and continuous centralized monitoring using a supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system. The SCADA system consists of the PLC, liquid level and pressure sensing devices, switchgear and hands-off-auto switches, a data acquisition system, and actuators that provide information and assistance to the PLC. The remediation and PLC systems have been in operation since September 2003. This case study is a part of the EPA's "Sensor Technology Used During Site Remediation Activities — Selected Experiences" report and can be found in Appendix 7 of that report.
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Sensors Case study: Use of Capacitance Probes to Measure Soil Moisture at the Badger Army Ammunitions Plant (2005)
This case study describes the use of capacitance probes at the Badger Army Ammunition Plant located in Sauk County, Wisconsin. Four capacitance probes were used to measure soil moisture in the sub-site BAAP-06 area of the site, also known as the Deterrent Burning Ground. Most of the volatile organic compounds and munitions-based compound-contaminated soil had been excavated from the sub-site and a low-permeability cap had been installed over the remaining contaminated zone to prevent leaching of contaminants into the groundwater. Also, in-situ bioremediation was initiated to remediate any residual contamination in the vadose zone. Four capacitance probes were installed in the area to evaluate the overall performance of the bioremediation system. In addition, the capacitance probes also provided a means to observe the potential for excessive infiltration, thereby preventing inadvertent contamination of the underlying groundwater. This case study is a part of the EPA's "Sensor Technology Used During Site Remediation Activities — Selected Experiences" report and can be found in Appendix 3 of that report.
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Advanced Passive Acoustic Leak Location and Detection Verification System for Underground Fuel Pipelines (2000)
This report describes the results from demonstration/validation testing of the pipeline acoustic leak-location system (PALS), conducted from April to October 2000 at four locations. The test locations were the Navy Construction Battalion Center, Port Hueneme, CA; Little Rock AFB, Little Rock, AR; SERDP Test Pipeline Facility, Edison, NJ; and Sabre Army Heliport and Campbell Army Airfield, Fort Campbell KY. PALS is a portable, computer-controlled, passive-acoustic system that uses robust signal processing algorithms to accurately locate small leaks over separation distances that are operationally practical. It consists of three cylindrical acoustic sensors, three small pre-amplifiers, and a notebook computer with a data acquisition card. The sensors are attached to the pipe wall or to a flange connection and measures the acoustic signal generated by turbulent flow through a hole in the pipe. As a result of the testing, PALS was identified as ready for commercial use.
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Low-Range Differential Pressure Leak Detection System for Small Leaks in Bulk Fuel Tanks (2000)
This report describes the results from a demonstration of a low-range differential pressure (LRDP) leak detection system, conducted from March to June 2000 at Point Loma in California. The LRDP system is a computer-controlled system, using a commercially-available differential pressure sensor, to detect small leaks in bulk USTs ranging in size from 50,000 to 12,500,000 gallons. It uses an in-tank level sensing unit, an embedded remote test controller to collect and analyze data, and a host computer to initiate, report, and archive results from the test. The system was tested in a 122.5 ft diameter, 2,100,000 gallon tank following EPA test procedures and met monthly monitoring and annual precision (tightness) test compliance requirements using both 10-hour and 24-hour tests. The test was performed by an independent, third-party evaluator following procedures approved by the National Work Group on Leak Detection Equipment.
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Expedited Site Characterization and Source Remediation at Former Manufactured Gas Plant Sites (1999)
This report, prepared by EPA's Technology Innovation Program, in conjunction with states, industry trade associations, and individual utilities, provides a summary of innovative strategies and technical approaches for expediting site characterization and source material remediation at former MGP sites. The report emphasizes the following three aspects: management tools; tools and techniques for expediting site characterization; and technologies for treatment of MGP-related wastes in soils. Specific tools for site characterization include field surveying tools such as direct push drilling and imaging techniques for underground structures. Case studies about technology use at selected MGP sites are included.
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Tracer Gas for Subsurface Barriers (1999)
This report is part of DOE's Innovative Technology Summary Report series. The report discuses demonstrations of the SEAtraceTM at Dover Air Force base in Dover, Delaware; Brookhaven National Laboratory in Upton, New York; and Naval Air Station in Brunswick, Maine from 1997 to 1999, and provides cost information. The SEAtraceTM Verification and Monitoring System is an integrated system that can determine the size and location of leaks in subsurface barriers constructed above the water table. A tracer gas is injected into the contained area formed by the barrier and is allowed to diffuse within the barrier to a targeted concentration. If a breach is present, the tracer gas diffuses through the breach into the surrounding medium. The SEAtraceTM detects and analyzes the tracer gas and offers long term monitoring of the barrier. The results of the demonstrations indicated the system is able to locate flaws in barriers.
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Triad-Related Strategies/Techniques

Considerations for Applying the Triad Approach: Hartford Area Hydrocarbon Plume Site Hartford, Illinois (2007)
This report, prepared by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), summarizes considerations for applying the TRIAD approach at a site in Hartford, Illinois. The Triad approach emphasizes the need for a systematic planning process to integrate dynamic work strategies and real-time measurements during site characterization. This report includes four sections, with additional references and exhibits. The first two sections provide an overview of the TRIAD approach and the Hartford site. These two sections address project objectives and primary study questions considered during the demonstration. The third section provides general observational data and suggestions regarding the key elements that should be evaluated when implementing the Triad approach. The last section provides suggested work plans for the TRIAD approach.
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Innovations in Site Characterization Case Study: The Role of a Conceptual Site Model for Expedited Site Characterization Using the Triad Approach at the Poudre River Site, Fort Collins, Colorado (2006)
This report provides a case study of the Cache La Poudre River Site in Fort Collins, Colorado. The Triad approach was implemented to support expedited site characterization. The case study examines systematic planning, an evolving conceptual site model, dynamic work strategies, and real time measurement technologies that can be used to unravel complex contaminant distribution patterns and help design a remedy for the site. The case study documents cost savings associated with the use of Triad approach over traditional methods for site characterization.
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Case Study of the Triad Approach: Expedited Site Characterization of Petroleum Constituents and PCBs Using Test Kits and a Mobile Chromatography Laboratory at the Former Cos Cob Power Plant Site (2004)
This case study published by EPA's Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation (OSRTI) provides detailed information about the use of the Triad approach, and the technologies and strategies used at the Former Cos Cob Power Plant Site in Greenwich, Connecticut. The Triad approach streamlines site investigation through systematic planning, dynamic work strategies, and real-time field-based measurements. At the Cos Cob site, a preliminary conceptual model (CSM), developed based on the review of existing data from previous investigations, indicated that only direct contact with contaminated soil and sediment would pose potential threats to human health and the environment. The field-based approach expanded the sampling and analytical coverage at the site and a dynamic work strategy assisted in the delineation of contaminants at the site, especially polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The use of the Triad approach at this site allowed successful completion of the site investigation, with significant time savings and nearly 35 percent in cost savings.
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Download Part 2 (8.9MB/126pp/PDF)

Technical and Regulatory Guidance for the Triad Approach: A New Paradigm for Environmental Project Management (2003)
This guidance report was prepared by the Sampling, Characterization, and Monitoring Team of the Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council. It documents new concepts regarding the manner in which environmental project managers utilize the Triad approach. The three elements of the Triad approach include systematic project planning, dynamic work strategies, and real-time measurement technologies. The relationship of the Triad approach to existing guidance, such as the data quality objectives process is provided. The report also lists the advantages and disadvantages of the Triad approach and notes regulatory and organizational barriers that may present obstacles for its use. Case studies are provided that present the advantages and potential success of the Triad approach.
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Dynamic Work Plan for Remediation of Soil (2000)
The Wenatchee Tree Fruit Research and Extension Center site contained soils contaminated with organochlorine pesticides, organophosphorus pesticides, and other pesticides. The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers used a dynamic work plan guided by field analyses to integrate the site characterization and cleanup portions of the project. Characterization, cleanup, and closure was accomplished within a single 4-month field mobilization, and the entire project cost ($589K) was about half the estimated cost ($1.2 million) of a more traditional site characterization and remediation scenario for the site.
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TRIAD Implementation Guide
This report prepared by The Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council (ITRC) provides a general overview of the implementation of the Triad process. This report serves as a "How-To" guide; provides in-depth discussions on how to address organizational, cost, and technical challenges; and provides additional supporting information in the appendices. The report describes the three main components of Triad: systematic planning, dynamic work strategies, and real-time measurement technologies. The report consists of five sections with additional references and appendices. The first three sections focus on what is Triad and where and how the program is applied. The remaining two sections focus on typical challenges faced and a summary of the entire process. This report is a companion document to the first Sampling, Characterization, and Monitoring Team document, Technical and Regulatory Guidance for the Triad Approach: A New Paradigm for Environmental Project Management (ITRC 2003).
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Field-Based Strategies/Direct Push/Cone Penetrometer

Demonstration/Validation of Long-Term Monitoring Using Wells Installed by Direct Push Technologies (2008)
This document, a cost and performance report prepared by the Environmental Security Technology Certification Program of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), compares the results of laboratory analyses conducted on samples obtained from direct push (DP) wells to those obtained from wells installed utilizing conventional techniques (for example, hollow-stem auger wells). DP well technologies provide the means for collecting faster, less expensive groundwater samples when compared to conventionally drilled wells. This demonstration consisted of side-by-side comparisons followed by comprehensive statistical analyses over several years of quarterly monitoring at five different sites. The ultimate goal of this demonstration was to determine whether DP wells can yield representative data for long-term monitoring applications. This report provides detailed information on the technology and demonstration design. In addition it provides an assessment of the performance and cost as well as implementation issues. The results of this demonstration will be used to convince regulators that DP wells should be accepted and their use encouraged throughout the industry.
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Detailed Hydraulic Assessment Using a High-Resolution Piezocone Coupled to a GeoVIS (2008)
This document, a cost and performance report prepared by the Environmental Security Technology Certification Program of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), details a project that evaluates cost-effective, high-resolution alternatives needed to reduce costs associated with site assessments. The DoD groundwater assessment and remediation projects require cost-effective methods for determining the direction and rate of groundwater and contaminant flow. The objective of this project was to conduct a full-scale demonstration of the use of two innovative direct-push sensor systems coupled with one another (the high-resolution piezocone and GeoVIS) to determine direction and rate of groundwater flow in three dimensions. The piezocone and GeoVIS are part of the DoD Site Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System (SCAPS) suite of tools. This report discusses aspects of the technology, demonstration design, performance and cost assessment, and implementation issues associated with this project. This technology will be useful during the remedial action optimization (RAO) and long-term monitoring (LTM) phases of a project.
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Push-Pull Tests for Evaluating the Aerobic Cometabolism of Chlorinated Aliphatic Hydrocarbons (2006)
This report presents findings from laboratory and field studies conducted at McClellan Air Force Base, California, and Lewis Logistics Center, Washington. The studies investigated the use of single-well push-pull tests to evaluate the potential for aerobic cometabolism of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) in groundwater. Single-well push-pull tests consist of controlled injection of a solution into an aquifer using an existing monitoring well, followed by the extraction of the solution/groundwater mixture from the same location after a period of time sufficient for cometabolism reactions to occur. The studies at both locations demonstrated that single-well push-pull tests can be a cost-effective method for evaluating the potential for in situ cometabolism.
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The Use of Direct Push Well Technology for Long-term Environmental Monitoring in Groundwater Investigations (2006)
This document provides technical and regulatory information required to make an informed decision regarding the use of direct push wells for long term groundwater chemistry monitoring and for static groundwater levels. This document presents detailed information related to direct push well technology, including the following:
The document does not address other potential application for direct push well technology, such as temporary well points or site remediation injection wells.
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Groundwater Sampling and Monitoring with Direct Push Technologies (2005)
This document provides guidance on groundwater sampling issues related to direct push technology (DPT). The document also provides advantages and limitations of DPT for groundwater sampling activities. It is presented in four major sections:
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Cost and Performance Report: Integrated Screening for Rapid Sediment Characterization (2004)
This Navy/Environmental Security Technology Certificate Program (ESTCP) report describes a demonstration of three field screening technologies: field-portable X-ray fluorescence (FPXRF) to screen for metals; ultraviolet fluorescence (UVF) to screen for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); and a bioluminescent-based bioassay, QwikSed, to measure biological effects. The primary objectives of the demonstration were to compare the three technologies to conventional sampling and analytical methods; verify data quality; document the logistical and economic resources required to operate these technologies; and determine the range of usefulness in which these technologies can be operated and integrated into a screening procedure to allow efficient assessment of sediment sites. The results indicated that the FPXRF and UVF provide level 2 semiquantitative screening data, meaning that a limited number of samples are needed to provide information to make screening data comparable to confirmatory laboratory data. QwikSed results provide level 1 qualitative screening data, meaning that the screening bioassay can predict whether other confirmatory bioassays are above or below a certain benchmark level, but cannot provide quantitative information.
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Dynamic Decision-making for Soil and Groundwater Characterization at the Naval Air Weapons Station (NAWS) China Lake, CA (2003)
This report, prepared by EPA's Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation, describes a base wide investigation at the NAWS China Lake, CA, that was used to identify specific sites that posed the greatest risk and the sites that should be considered for no further action status. The investigation used a conceptual site model as a dynamic decision-making tool, and included a soil-sampling program that produced samples for XRF analysis and X-ray diffraction analysis. A groundwater and surface water sampling program produced samples for isotope geochemistry analyses, including oxygen-18, deuterium, and carbon-14 analysis. These isotope signatures were used to evaluate the amount of mixing between hydrogeologic zones at the site.
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In-Situ DUOX™ Chemical Oxidation Technology to Treat Chlorinated Organics at the Roosevelt Mills Site, Vernon, CT (2002)
This report presents a study performed under the EPA's Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program to evaluate the feasibility of applying DUOX™ chemical oxidation technology to media contaminated with chlorinated solvents at the Roosevelt Mills site in Vernon, Connecticut. The test site was characterized using a cone penetrometer (CPT) outfitted with several subsurface sensors and sample acquisition tools. CPT sensors and tools utilized included: a standard piezocone for evaluating the site hydrogeololgical properties, a Video-CPT for visually identifying the presence of chlorinated solvents, a Conesipper tool to collect groundwater samples, and a VERTEK soil sampler to collect discrete soil samples and cores for use during the treatability study.
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Continuous Multichannel Tubing System for Groundwater (2000)
This report is part of the Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center's TechData Sheet series. In January 2000, a field demonstration of the Continuous Multichannel Tubing (CMT) System was conducted at Hunter's Point Shipyard, located in California. Groundwater is contaminated with VOCs and SVOCs. The CMT system consists of multi-chamber polyethylene tubing, which is inserted into a boring or temporary casing and allows access to different depths with one device. For each desired sampling depth, three holes are drilled into one of the chambers to serve as an entry port. A plug is inserted to prevent accumulation of stagnant water in the chamber below each port. A sand pack is attached at each sampling port to serve as a filter to remove particulates. Bentonite packers are positioned between the ports in order to isolate aquifers.
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Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Cone Penetrometer System for Soil (2000)
This report describes the use of an integrated Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and Cone Penetrometer Technology (CPT) system to analyze the heavy metals content of soil in situ. The system uses a high-energy laser, and was demonstrated at Sandia National Laboratory's Chemical Waste Landfill in Albuquerque, New Mexico. During this demonstration, the system provided a measurement of the concentration of chromium as a function of depth.
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Thermal Desorption for VOCs in Soil (2000)
This Environmental Security Technology Certificate Program (ESTCP) report describes demonstrations at five separate DoD facilities in which the Thermal Desorption Sampler (TDS) system was used to detect chlorinated solvent and BTEX contamination at depths up to 60 feet BGS in a wide range of soil types and soil moisture conditions and provides cost information. The TDS performs rapid, in situ field screening of VOC contamination in unsaturated soil. The device is applied using cone penetrometer technology. The demonstration was conducted under the Site Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System (SCAPS) Program is a DoD effort to develop sensor and hybrid sensor/sampler technologies to utilize the capabilities of cone penetrometer technology for characterizing contamination at military installations. A known volume of soil is captured in a sample chamber and the VOC contaminants are purged with helium carrier gas while heating the chamber.
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Wireline Cone Penetrometer for Soil (2000)
This report is part of DOE's Innovative Technology Summary Report series and presents the results of a November 2000, DOE demonstration of the Wireline CPT system at Savannah River Site's M-Basin and at the Hanford Site. The Wireline CPT is a method of exchanging CPT tools and sensors without removing the entire rod string from the ground. The system is comprised of a wire cable, a locking and retrieval system, and several characterization tools that can be retrieved from any depth. The tools include a peizocone, a soil sampler, an attachment that allows grouting of the hole during retraction, and a soil gas sampler.
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Adaptive Sampling and Analysis Programs for Soil and Groundwater at Multiple Sites (1999)
This report is part of the DOE Innovative Technology Summary Report series. Between 1992 and 1999, ASAPs have been used to delineate and quantify subsurface hazardous and mixed waste, naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) contamination, identify buried waste pits, and provide remediation support for precise excavations at multiple sites including: Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico; Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois; Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York; FUSRAP sites in Painesville and Luckey, Ohio; USACE Ashland 2 FUSRAP Site, Tonawanda, New York; DOD sites at Kirkland Air Force Base, Albuquerque, New Mexico and Joliet, Illinois; Private NORM contaminated site in Mt. Pleasant, Michigan. ASAPs provide an alternative to traditional sampling programs by using field analytical data to generate sample results quickly enough to have an impact on the course of future sampling activities (sampling numbers, locations, analysis, etc.) ASAPs use a dual approach to sample strategy by combining GIS with Plume™, an interactive software package that provides quantitative support for adaptive sampling and analysis programs. The ASAP approach may be used for the characterization and extent of contamination in groundwater, surface soil, and subsurface soil.
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Raman Spectroscopy Probe for High-Level Waste in Soil or Groundwater (1999)
The Raman probe, deployed in high-level waste tanks with a cone penetrometer, uses Raman spectroscopy (an optical method) to detect organic and inorganic chemicals in the media surrounding the probe. Laser light is beamed through a sapphire window and a sample, causing molecules to vibrate in a distinctive manner and creating a vibrational "fingerprint". These fingerprints are compared to known vibrational signals and are used to provide an analysis of the material surrounding the probe. Tests were conducted on a hot cell in the 222-S Laboratory at the Hanford site and on solvent-contaminated soils at the Savannah River site.
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Risk Based, Goal Oriented Sampling at Multiple Sites (1999)
Smart SamplingTM is a risk-based, goal-oriented process that provides a framework for evaluating and improving alternative remediation designs and mapping risk levels and cost alternatives. It provides graphical tools that focus negotiations among site owners, regulators, and stakeholders to set remediation goals. This report discusses the use of Smart SamplingTM at several sites from 1992 to 1999, including the Sandia National Laboratory in Albuquerque, New Mexico, and the Mound Environmental Management Project in Miamisburg, Ohio.
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Cone Penetrometer Internal Reflection Sensor for NAPL (1998)
This report presents results and information from the 1998 field demonstration by DOE at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina and at Sage Dry Cleaners in Jacksonville, Florida. Both sites contained PCE and TCE. The Internal Reflection Sensor is a technology, which is deployed in a cone penetrometer (CPT) for real-time, in situ detection of DNAPL or LNAPL in both the vadose and saturated zones. The technology contains an internal reflection element that is positioned in the wall of the CPT so that the sensing face is in contact with the soil or groundwater as the cone is advanced. When NAPL is present, laser light is not reflected within the element and the internally reflected light is diminished. The detector is instantaneously measured at the surface.
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Expedited Site Characterization for Groundwater (1998)
The principal elements of expedited site characterization (ESC) are a field investigation conducted by an integrated team working in the field; analysis, integration, and initial validation of characterization data as they are obtained in the field; and a dynamic work plan that enables the team to take advantage of new insights from recent data to adjust the work plan in the field. This report covers demonstrations of the ESC methodology at several DOE complexes, DoD facilities, BLM and USDA facilities, and commercial facilities in the U.S. and Poland. The ESC methodology has been used to delineate contaminant plumes, verify hydrogeological site models, and delineate hydrologic systems at landfills, petroleum release sites, radioactive sites, manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites, and grain storage facilities.
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Modified Direct Push Well Installation for Groundwater (1998)
This report is part of the Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center's TechData Sheet series. In 1998, the Broad Agency Announcement program and the Navy Environmental Leadership Program performed a field demonstration for the installation of modified direct push wells at two sites at Naval Station Mayport. The sites contained groundwater, which was contaminated with PCE and pesticides. Direct push wells consist of a double screen system, protected by a steel drive tube with a sealed tip, that is driven to within 5 feet of the desired screen interval. The outer screen is pushed into the aquifer and the lower screen is lowered into the outer screen. A bentonite slurry is used to seal the well and a packer prevents the slurry from reaching the screened interval. This method minimizes the downward migration of contaminants that may occur with traditional drilling methods.
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Position Specific Sampling Technique for Soil (1998)
This DOE Technology Development Data Sheet presents results from three field demonstrations of the UTD Inc. Position Location (POLO) sensor device. Two demonstrations were completed in 1994 - one in normally consolidated sandy clay at a private site in Virginia and the second in a large man-made mound of non-compacted sand to cobble size particles at DOE's Savannah River Site. The third field test was conducted in 1998 using a modified POLO system to produce surveys of drill strings. POLO fits within a cone penetrometer rod and is used to identify the position of characterization sensors in the subsurface. POLO identifies the location of the rod tip and samples, as well as tracks the rod path.
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Core Barrel Sampler for Subsurface Soil (1997)
This report is part of EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Report series. The field test was conducted in May and June 1997, at two sites: the Small Business Administration (SBA) site in Albert City, Iowa and the Chemical Sales Company site in Denver, Colorado. The VOCs detected in soil samples collected from the site include cis-1,2-DCE, 1,1,1-TCA, TCE, and PCE. The SimulProbe Core Barrel Sampler is designed to collect subsurface soil samples and may be advanced using direct push or drilling platforms. The sampler is constructed of steel and consists of a split core barrel, a drive shoe at the bottom of the unit, and a core barrel head at the top of the unit. The drive shoe component is equipped with a slide mechanism and has an optional drive tip for direct push, discrete sampling locations.
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Dual Tube Liner Sampler for Subsurface Soil (1997)
This report is part of EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Report series. The field test was conducted in May and June 1997 at two sites: the Small Business Administration (SBA) site in Albert City, Iowa and the Chemical Sales Company site in Denver, Colorado. The Dual Tube Liner Sampler was designed to collect subsurface soil samples by using direct-push platform technology. Two steel tube extensions of different diameters (an inner and outer tube) and a metal drive head adapter are advanced into the soil. The outer extension serves as a casing and the lower end of the inner extension tube is fitted with a plastic liner during sample collection to assist in obtaining discrete samples. The VOCs detected in soil samples collected from the site include cis-1,2-DCE, 1,1,1-TCA, TCE, and PCE.
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Large Bore Soil Sampler for Discrete Samples (1997)
This report is part of EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Report series. The field test was conducted in May and June 1997, at two sites: the Small Business Administration (SBA) site in Albert City, Iowa and the Chemical Sales Company site in Denver, Colorado. The VOCs detected in soil samples collected from the site include cis-1,2-DCE, 1,1,1-TCA, TCE, and PCE. The large bore soil sampler is a single tube-type, solid-barrel, closed-piston device advanced by using direct-push techniques to collect discrete interval samples of unconsolidated soils at depth. The sampler may be used with a liner to facilitate retrieval of the sample.
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Site Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System for Soil (1997)
This report presents results from a technology demonstration where a site characterization and analysis penetrometer system (SCAPS) laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) sensor was evaluated as a field screening method for petroleums, oils, and lubricants (POL) by comparing data from the downhole neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) SCAPS-LIF and data from a nitrogen-based SCAPS-LIF with data from conventional sampling and analytical methods. The SCAPS-LIF technologies were tested at sites including Port Hueneme, CA, in a diesel fuel marine (DFM)-impacted area; Sandia National Laboratory, NM, at a fuel tank farm site impacted by diesel fuel no. 2; and at Naval Air Station North Island Fuel Farm, CA, impacted by JP-5 and DFM. The two innovative screening methods (the LIF methods) were found to produce results that were comparable to those produced by conventional sampling and analytical methods. However, several field performance concerns were identified.
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Subsoil Probe for Continuous or Discrete Samples (1997)
This report is part of EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Report series. The field test was conducted in May and June 1997, at two sites: the Small Business Administration (SBA) site in Albert City, Iowa and the Chemical Sales Company site in Denver, Colorado. The VOCs detected in soil samples collected from the site include cis-1,2-DCE, 1,1,1-TCA, TCE, and PCE. The sampler is designed to collect either continuous or discrete core samples by using manual or powered percussive techniques. The sampler consists of a sampling tube, a body that guides the sampler as it is driven into the soil, and a foot-pedal-operated jack that retrieves the sampler. The sample tube may be fitted with a disposable sample liner and an interchangeable tip (depending upon the type of soil encountered).
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Cryogenic Drilling for Sand and Gravel (1996)
This report is part of DOE's Innovative Technology Summary Report series and presents cost information and lessons learned from four demonstrations conducted at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and one conducted at the Aerojet Site in Rancho Cordova, California between 1994 and 1996. Cryogenic drilling uses cold nitrogen (either liquid or gas) as the circulating medium during drilling operations. The cold nitrogen freezes moisture in the ground surrounding the hole. This eliminates the need for a casing to stabilize the borehole, allows the drilling of smaller diameter boreholes, and minimizes the amount of investigation-derived wastes. Cryogenic drilling is most appropriate for sites that contain unconsolidated sands and gravel that are difficult to drill by other methods.
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Laser Induced Fluorescence Sensor for Soil (1995)
This report is part of EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Report series. Two field demonstrations were conducted in May and November 1995, at the Hydrocarbon National Test Site located at Naval Construction Battalion Center, Port Hueneme, California and at the Steam Plant Tank Farm at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. The Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System (SCAPS) Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) system uses a pulsed laser in combination with an optical detector to measure fluorescence using optical fibers. The measurement is made through a window on a probe, which is pushed into the ground with a truck mounted cone penetrometer. The LIF method measures the in situ distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons based on the fluorescence response.
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Rapid Optical Screening Tool for Soil (1995)
This report is part of EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Report series. Two field demonstrations were conducted in May and October 1995, at the Hydrocarbon National Test Site located at Naval Construction Batallion Center, Port Hueneme, California and at the Steam Plant Tank Farm at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico in order to test the technology as a field screening method for TPH. The Rapid Optical Screening Tool (ROST) Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) system provides real time field screening of the physical characteristics of soil and the chemical characteristics of aromatic petroleum hydrocarbons. The ROST system is mounted on a standard cone penetrometer truck and is capable of retrieving geological information as well as distinguishing between aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated areas and non-contaminated areas. The ROST uses a wavelength tunable UV laser source coupled with an optical detector to measure fluorescence via optical fibers. The LIF method measures the in situ distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons based on the fluorescence response based on the presence of the PAH component of petroleum hydrocarbons. PAHs can be detected in the soil matrix in the vadose, capillary fringe, and saturated zones.
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Laser Fluorescence Probe for Soil and Groundwater (1994)
In 1994, EPA's Office of Research and Development conducted a field demonstration of a fiber optic laser induced fluorescence (LIF) excitation emission matrix (EEM) instrument which can be mounted on a cone penetrometer. The technology was demonstrated on soil and groundwater at Hill AFB in Utah, Hanscom AFB in Massachusetts, and the U.S. Coast Guard Station in Elizabeth City, North Carolina. The instrument uses a Nd:YAG laser and Raman shifter as an excitation source. The excitation source produces different wavelengths that are launched through fiber optics to the sample. Contaminant fluorescence is measured on a spectrograph.
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Adaptive Sampling and Analysis Programs for Soil at Hanscom Air Force Base
A dynamic site investigation was performed at Hanscom Air Force Base (HAFB), Operable Unit 1, using an Adaptive Sampling and Analysis Program. Sampling and analytical technologies used at HAFB included the following: Download (1.7MB/48pp/PDF)

Cone Penetrometer for Soil and Groundwater
Cone penetrometer technology (CPT) provides real-time data on physical, electrical, and chemical properties for use in characterization of the subsurface. CPT has many uses, including use with sensors and use for installation of piezometers. The cone penetrometer consists of a steel cone that is hydraulically pushed into the ground while in situ measurements are continuously collected and transported to the surface for data interpretation and visualization. The technology has been demonstrated at several sites and has been shown to be a cost-effective tool for site characterization at sites described as "difficult to drill".
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Dynamic Working Strategy for DNAPL Investigation at the McCormick and Baxter Superfund Site, Stockton, CA
This report, prepared by EPA's Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation, describes a field investigation at the McCormick and Baxter Superfund Site, Stockton, CA, that was used to characterization DNAPLs at the site. Types of information collected include the vertical and horizontal distribution of NAPL, physical and chemical characteristics of the NAPL, type, thickness, and heterogeneity of the subsurface geologic material, and the presence of man-made subsurface physical barriers. Sampling techniques included the use of a SCAPS (direct push technology), mounted with LIF and CPT sensors, and was based on use of the Triad approach.
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Vapor Intrusion

Detailed Field Investigation of Vapor Intrusion Processes (2008)
This report, prepared by the Environmental Security Technology Certification Program, details a demonstration study which conducted conceptual model-based vapor intrusion (VI) investigations at the Altus Air Force Base in Oklahoma and Hill Air Force Base in Utah. The demonstration consisted of collecting high density data at the test sites, analyzing the data, and utilizing the results to develop a cost-effective and accurate approach for the investigation of vapor intrusion into buildings overlying contaminated groundwater. The primary objectives of the study were to collect data representative of site conditions, determine VI impacts, and develop a reliable VI investigation approach. This report describes the sampling/monitoring procedures, data collection, and the performance and cost assessment of the VI investigation. VI data collected in the study includes indoor air concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), oxygen, and carbon dioxide and geotechnical data. This data was used to assess the spatial and temporal variability in VOC concentration, movement of VOCs Across key interfaces, and the VI impacts at the selected test sites. The results of the demonstration were used to support the use of a step-wise process for the investigation of VI from groundwater sources at other sites. The results also provide facility managers with investigation results that support a cost-effective, building-specific evaluation approach of VI impacts at corrective action sites.
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Vapor Intrusion Pathway: A Practical Guide (2007)
This report prepared by The Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council (ITRC) provides a general overview of vapor intrusion and investigation procedures. This report provides a 13-step approach to investigate vapor intrusion and to determine whether any remediation is warranted. The first seven steps focus on screening the site based on preexisting site conditions and data to determine if a pathway for vapor intrusion is present. The remaining six steps focus on the vapor intrusion investigation process and provide various strategies for investigation. The report also provides an overview of treatment strategies for remediation of vapor intrusion. The report includes the following three general approaches to address vapor intrusion: site remediation, institutional controls, and building mitigation. This report is a companion document to Vapor Intrusion Pathway: Investigative Approaches for Typical Scenarios.
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Vapor Intrusion Pathway: Investigative Approaches for Typical Scenarios (2007)
This report prepared by the Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council (ITRC) provides hypothetical scenarios for vapor intrusion investigations. Six scenarios are provided including:
  1. Gas station in a residential neighborhood
  2. Dry cleaner in a strip mall adjacent to a neighborhood
  3. Large industrial facility with a long plume under several hundred buildings
  4. Vacant lot with proposed Brownfields development over a groundwater plume
  5. Vacant, large commercial building with warehouse space and office space
  6. Apartment building with parking garage over a groundwater plume
This report is a companion document to Vapor Intrusion Pathway: A Practical Guide.
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